The Human Operating Manual



Still To Come:


Mindfulness Exercises

Learning Efficiency


Emotional Regulation Examples


Nutrition and Exercise Simplified

These are some rules to keep quantifying from ruining enjoyment:

  1. Track but don’t obsess. Don’t worry about the results or constantly run statistical evaluations. Check once a day to make sure everything is okay and leave it at that. The stress from obsessing over data will affect your results.  
  2. Be careful with electrical pollution. Too many devices with WiFi signals and bluetooth surely can’t be good for longevity.
  3. Listen to your body. If a device tells you you’re doing well you might be tempted to take it easy or do something unnecessary. Or if you haven’t achieved a certain goal, it might put you in a bad mood. You may even perceive yourself to be feeling different to how your body is physiologically feeling, based on device feedback.
  4. Recognize the value of intrinsic motivators rather than just extrinsic motivators like tracking devices or social media. Extrinsic motivators can be healthy but they shouldn’t be the be all and end all. Establish a deeper connection with yourself by observing how you feel when carrying out an activity. Experience the journey rather than obsessing over the destination.

What Is Biohacking?

Biohacking involves systems thinking. Biohacking might be compared to cybernetics, which involves the study of automatic control systems. To understand cybernetics, you need to grasp the concepts of input, process, output, and feedback.

Biological systems feature autoregulation mechanisms through which the organism strives for equilibrium or homeostasis. There are also positive and negative feedback loops, that operate with the intention of regulating homeostasis.

Humans interact with their environment and microbiota to prevent disease and dysfunction. The optimization of physiological health involves balancing both the lower levels of the system (nutrition, mitochondria, and microbiome) as well as the higher levels (social relations and the environment). Systems thinking can be used to identify the 20% of the input that produces 80% of the results (Pareto principle).

  • Self-measuring involves self-monitoring via various sensors connected to a smartphone.
  • Involves “data-ism”, the concept of data being an important tool in self-development.
  • Highlights the visualization of data and the perception of causal relationships.
  • Feedback loops created by monitoring devices may help to change behavior.
  • Transparency and sociability are emphasized in data collection and sharing.
  • The goal of measuring may not be optimization – it can be a way to ask new questions.
  • Data collection and visualization may be a means of self-expression.

Self-measuring can lead to worsening neuroses and addiction to measuring, if the collection of data is the goal rather than to improve one’s life.


Setting up your bedroom:

Sleeping pills have the risk of dependency, withdrawals – sleeplessness, tiredness, and memory problems – undesirable brain changes, and many others. Therefore, unless you have no other choice, sleeping pills are highly discouraged. 

Darken Your Room

  • LEDs on electronics can disturb sleep. Cover them with black tape if you are adamant about keeping them in your bedroom
  • Use blackout curtains to reduce light pollution coming in
  • Switch lamps to brands that don’t emit the blue spectrum of light (lamps that change spectrum according to the cycle of the day, salt lamps)

Bed Quality and Ergonomics (must be breathable)

  • A mattress made of organic cotton, wool, hemp, or natural rubber (instead of being covered with polyurethane foam and chemicals that are potentially allergenic)
  • Oat, cherry, spelt, or buckwheat pillows
  • Organic cotton, leather, silk, etc. sheets and blankets that promote better thermoregulation
  • Wear no clothes, to prevent bands blocking the lymphatic system
  • Sleep without a pillow
  • Use a pillow that supports the neck
  • Have a pillow between the legs (when sleeping on your side)
  • Sleeping on your back or right side. Other positions put stress on internal organs. If you suffer from heartburn, the left side is a better option
    • Use a heavy comforter if you move a lot during the night
    • Sleeping on your stomach is not recommended to anybody (except those with a spinal disc herniation)
    • Sleeping on your back is not recommended if you suffer from sleep apnea due to the risk of respiratory arrest

Electromagnetic Pollution

  • Some people experience sensitivity to electromagnetic radiation, but its existence is not yet verified. Some studies suggest that “grounding” can alleviate insomnia.
  • Grounding mat
  • WLAN routers and mobile phones at a distance, and switching to flight mode. A 20min phone call will emit more radiation than a WLAN base station per year.
  • Walk barefoot during the day, or use grounding (earthing) shoes.
  • Scanning the radiation levels in the bedroom (with EMF and EMC detectors)

Air Quality

  • Ventilate the bedroom during the day
  • Exclude the possibility of mold (DIY measuring kits or professional testing is available)
  • House plants to increase humidity, turn carbon dioxide into oxygen, and release negative ions into the air (golden cane palm, snake plant, devil’s ivy, etc.)
  • Ventilate at night but avoid a direct draft near the head
  • Air filtering (UV, HEPA, carbon filtering, photocatalytic oxidation, air ionizer)
  • Adjusting humidity with technical tools (30-50% humidity)
  • A well-ventilated house. Natural construction methods, eco paints and finishing materials
  • Specific incenses and relaxing essential oils (ylang ylang, vanilla, lavender) may increase sleepiness at the cost of air quality


  • The temperature of the body drops during sleep. Sleeping in a room that is too hot or cold makes maintaining thermoregulation difficult
  • Adjust radiators and air conditioning
  • Keeping windows open and ventilating the space properly
  • The optimal temperature for most people is around 18-22 degrees Celsius (64-69 Fahrenheit)

Biohacker List

  • Blackout curtains
  • Air humidifier/purifier/ionizer
  • Temperature 18-22C
  • Air humidity 30-50%
  • Salt lamp
  • Magnesium supplements
  • Thermoregulation (breathable mattress)
  • Memory foam pillow
  • Light spectrum changing lamp
  • Sleep tracker
  • Phone in airplane mode
  • Air filtering plants

Preparing for Better Sleep

Stay Hydrated 

Consume trace mineral drops, trace liquid minerals, quality sea salt (such as Colima sea salt), and plenty of water. This will help control appetite that sleep deprivation notoriously causes.

Caffeinate Smart

Don’t overconsume. Try to limit caffeine intake 8-10 hours before your planned sleep time. 

Move It

Reset your internal clock by getting outside in the sun, light aerobic exercise, whether it’s yoga or a quick walk first thing in the morning. Regular exercise for 20-30min daily helps balance the daily rhythm and significantly improves sleep quality.

  • Pain in the muscles and connective tissue may cause insomnia. Try acupuncture, massage, sauna, yoga, and stretching. Take relaxing baths (e.g., with magnesium chloride in the bath water during evenings).

Blue Spectrum Light (450-490nm) 

Movement, light, and vitamin D will realign your circadian rhythm and eliminate some of your sleep deprived anxiety. If you do this in an overnight-fasted state, it will enhance your fat-burning capabilities for the rest of the day. During the day, especially after waking up, is an important factor in maintaining one’s alertness and circadian rhythm.

  • Use a full spectrum light therapy lamp or use Philips Hue light bulbs in your house (change color spectrum with time).
  • Spend time in sunlight. 15-minute walk daily, set up workstation near a window.
  • Avoid the use of sunglasses during the day that block blue spectrum light. It may start melatonin production early.

Eat Right 

When you are sleep deprived your leptin levels will be high and your ghrelin levels will be low. Eating refined carbs and fats will make you more tired. Eat foods high in protein, low in fat, and low on the glycemic index. Protein increases the production of orexin, a hormone that keeps you awake and alert. Eat protein sources that contain high levels of tryptophan, as a precursor for serotonin and melatonin production.

Buffer Immunity 

When sleep deprived, your immune system function declines and levels of pro-inflammatory compounds increase.

  • Take 1000mg of activated charcoal to flush circulating toxins out of your system
  • Place 4-5 drops of oregano oil under your tongue to protect yourself from foodborne and airborne bacteria.
  • To reduce inflammation, take 1000mg of curcumin with black pepper after a poor night’s sleep.

Nap Right 

Don’t nap beyond 20min as it will transition you into deeper sleep states, that will result in grogginess. Use NSDR protocols instead. 

Going to Bed

Relaxation and Stress Relief

Keep in mind that some people find that they get a sudden burst of energy before going to bed. This is thought to be an evolutionarily developed trait to help the person return to camp when light exposure decreases and to prepare for sleep. If you find you begin to wake up after a period of sleepiness, use this time to complete your night time rituals and relaxation/stress relief tasks.

  • Relieve stress with heart rate variability training before going to bed
  • Use a spike mat to improve circulation in the skin and release endorphins and oxytocin which help you to calm down and relax
  • Practice breathing exercises
  • Listen to relaxing audio tracks or appropriate binaural beats
  • Have sex
  • Go to a sauna or have a bath with magnesium salts. The body will compensate for the heat by decreasing core body temperature, increasing sleepiness. 

Open Up Your Respiratory Tract

  • Learn to breathe through your nose
  • Tape your mouth if you are a chronic mouth breather
  • Use a nasal strip or a nasal spray to keep your respiratory tract open
  • Use a neti pot or a nasal rinse bottle for nasal cleaning
  • Improve the air quality in your bedroom

Sound and Light Stimulation

  • Binaural beats with headphones
  • Create a natural soundscape with a computer or mobile apps
  • Light stimulation with red spectrum light, that allows melatonin production, if you require light


  • Earplugs
  • Pressure regulating earplugs for airplane travel

Blocking Light

  • Eye patches or sleeping masks
  • Blackout curtains

Electric Stimulation (proven to have an effect on the production of GABA and serotonin)

  • Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation “electrosleep”

Lucid Dreaming

  • Write down a sleep diary
  • Try self-suggestion right before going to bed; and reality checks during dreams
  • Wake yourself during a lucid dream and try to remember your dreams
  • Sleep herbs (Artemisa vulgaris, Heimia salicifolia, Synaptolepsis kirkii, and Huperzia serrata)

On a personal note, I’m not sold on Lucid Dreaming being a positive thing beyond creating a feeling of control inside a realm that is usually unattainable. I feel like the brain requires this period of time to conserve energy and repair. By creating dream autonomy, you are using unnecessary resources that would be better spent decreasing emotional valence and motor programming. 

Wake Up Naturally

Unpronounced soundscapes during the night (nature and traffic) reduces the stress response in the morning. Create a gradually developing soundscape that emulates nature waking up.

  • Use a wake-up light that imitates sunrise
  • Wake up later. Use an app to check your sleep stages so you aren’t waking up during an N3 stage
  • Stressful experiences and thoughts about a mounting workload can increase stress response. The night before, write wandering thoughts and 3 most important things you need to do. After that, consider meditation
  • Not essential for sleep, but now is a good time to oil pull, using coconut oil for better oral health and a healthier mouth microbiome
  • Kickstart the adrenals with table salt and an inverted body position. Ingest 1/2 a liter of water mixed with 1/2 teaspoon of salt within 15min of waking up
  • Inversions, a handstand or headstand, to improve circulation in your body and to boost your adrenal glands
  • Yoga, jogging, or stretching
  • Try a warm shower or bath, finished with a cold shower (closes pores)
  • Vibration plate, jumping jacks, or mini trampoline to increase blood and lymph circulation
  • Using cyclic hyperventilation breathing exercises like the WHM will help to increase epinephrine and cortisol levels, increasing energy for the day ahead. 

Measuring & Tracking Sleep

Self-quantification can be detrimental to quality of life. By drawing more attention to the output rather than the process, constant measurement and quantification can make enjoyable activities feel more like work. The same could be said of sleep.

Sleep Quality Can Be Measured By

  • EEG: tracks various phases and cycles of sleep
  • EMG: measures jaw muscle tension
  • EOG: measures eye movements
  • HRV: measures stress level during the night and the body’s response. The PNS activates itself during NREM while the SNS activates during REM
  • Nocturnal movements: one’s sleep should have periods every night that last at least 15min where there is no discernible movement
  • Temperature: room temperature
  • MSLT (Multiple Sleep Latency Test)
  • MWT (Maintenance of Wakefulness Test)
  • Body temperature: drops during the night
  • Melatonin readings from saliva
  • Heartbeat: drops during the night
  • Oxygen saturation: levels of oxygen in the blood
  • Blood pressure: drops during the night
  • Sound levels: background noise and snoring

Tips For Measuring

  • Activity trackers and watches
  • Wearable jewelry such as smart rings
  • Sleep trackers that sense body movements during sleep using radio waves
  • Sleep trackers that are placed under the bed sheets
  • Sleep applications that utilize the motion sensors of a smartphone
  • Sleep trackers fastened to the head that sense eye movements or electroencephalogram signals
  • Heart rate belts that measure sleep quality

To Maximize Sleep Quality

  • REM: 20-25% of time spent asleep
  • Deep sleep: 10-20%
  • Total sleep: 7-8 hours
  • Falling asleep within 15min
  • Little to no waking up in the night
  • Increased HRV during the night, indicating the activation of the PNS
  • Daily resting HR in the morning is constant or decreasing compared to monthly average
  • Little to no snoring
  • No unusual restlessness or movements during the night
  • The soundscape during the night contains nothing that stands out

If your morning heart rate begins to creep up, try to organize rest days to boost recovery.

Tips and Guides

Power Naps

Naps are not ideal as they are hard to manage and often throw a spanner in the works when trying to maintain a healthy circadian rhythm. However, naps may be useful if you are sleep deprived and you keep track of the following rules:

  • Don’t fall deeper than N2 stages. Naps should last no longer than 20min. The sleep inertia grogginess is caused by the increased production of adenosine. If one wants to catch up on lost sleep, or accelerate learning, it might be beneficial to sleep longer. 90-minute cycle.
  • If you nap for more than half an hour, you are probably not sleeping enough at night, or you have some adrenal imbalances that you need to address.
  • The best time to nap is 6-8 hours after waking up. This is when the dip in alertness and sleep propensity is highest.
  • Avoid caffeine and other stimulants 1-4 hours before. Supercharging a nap with caffeine is a myth. 
  • Eat before your nap. Hypoglycemia may disrupt sleep.
  • Don’t exercise immediately before your nap. Naps can assist with recovery, but try to finish working out at least 45 minutes before.
  • Schedule your lowest stress activities for before the nap, like rearranging your desk, cleaning the garage, reading, writing, etc. Not phone calls or emails.
  • Don’t use an alarm clock unless you have to. Waking up unnaturally while your brain is consolidating information is disorientating. You will release cortisol and adrenaline. Once you begin a healthy napping schedule, your body will naturally wake up after 20-60 minutes. If you need an alarm clock, use SunRise Alarm Clock, the Sleep Time by Azumio iPhone app, or the Sleep as Android app. Alternatively, you can use the chiliPAD to circulate warm water under your body when you would like to begin waking up. If you have to, set the alarm for 20min.
  • Cover your eyes with a sleeping mask
  • Us earplugs, if in a noisy environment, or use headphones with white noise
  • Breathe in deeply and calmly. Impersonating someone sleeping actually may help.
  • Try napping with a spike mat to release endorphins and oxytocin and increase blood flow.
  • Don’t force it. If you can’t nap, don’t worry about it. Just work on your normal sleep routine.
  • Try to nap at the same time of day and have the same pre-nap sequences.
  • Don’t use alcohol or sedatives to initiate a nap.

Travel and Sleep

  • Avoid stimulants 6 hours before flying.
  • Use the toilet immediately upon boarding.
  • Request a window seat. It is far easier to sleep when you lean your head against the airplane wall. Also, this way you don’t have to make way for passengers wanting to use the toilet.
  • Make more leg room by selecting a seat in the exit row.
  • Avoid noisy seats near the toilet or engine.
  • Dress comfortably. Wear a warm hat and replace shoes with woolen flight socks.
  • Try supplements to improve the ability to fall asleep, such as L-theanine and melatonin.
  • Consume a serving of reishi mushroom extract, such as two packets of the Four Sigmatic blend. This will allow you to sleep without waking up drowsy, especially when combined with 20-40mg of CBD.
  • Use a J-shaped travel pillow.
  • Tell the attendant that you intend to sleep and do not wish to be disturbed.
  • Try to sleep the moment you board. Takeoff and the initial ascent usually last long enough so that by the time food arrives you already feel well rested. However, do not adjust the seat into a reclining position and fasten the seatbelt. Otherwise, the attendant will wake you.
  • Eliminate noise. Foam earplugs combined with noise-blocking headphones.
  • Eliminate light. Wear a full wraparound sleep mask.

How to Manage Jet Lag

  1. Practice grounding: As soon as you land at your destination go outside in your bare feet. You can also use the PEMF device set at 7-10Hz. For the greatest concentration of negative ions, swim in the ocean or take a walk after a lightning storm.
  2. Get light exercise: The sooner you can exercise after landing the faster the jet lag will go. Unless you arrive late at night. Do exercise outside for greater effect (sun exposure).
  3. Avoid stimulants until you arrive: Limit caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine. They override the CNS and have the potential to disrupt an already disrupted circadian rhythm. 
  4. Take melatonin: 60-80mg before going to bed at your destination. Melatonin is also anti-inflammatory so it will help to reduce inflammation gained from being exposed to WiFi signals, solar radiation, dehydration from altitude, dry filtered air, toxin-laden airplane food, bad water, and airborne pathogens. Try not to depend on melatonin though as it has been shown to be potentially anti-androgenic. 
  5. Drink lots of water: 16-20 ounces of water each hour with electrolytes.
  6. Take a cold shower: Cold showers reduce inflammatory cytokine levels, activate brown adipose tissue to burn fat, and induce a hormone response, by releasing high amounts of adrenaline. Splashing cold water on your face can help, but it is not as good as immersion or showering. For best results, find a spa that allows dry sauna and cold plunging. Cold showers also dilate your blood vessels because they release more nitric oxide, and the subsequent increase in glucose and oxygen intake by your organs and muscles can dramatically reduce jet lag.
  7. Consume curcumin: A potent antioxidant when taken on an empty stomach before and after flying. It also crosses the BBB and shuts down inflammatory cytokines in neural tissue and may even boost testosterone and growth hormone production. 1000mg of curcumin (with black pepper). A meal with curries and sulfurous vegetables can work.
  8. Seek out sulfur: An excellent source of antioxidant precursors and help to reduce the inflammation that can occur when flying. Broccoli, cauliflower, garlic, onion, and brussels sprouts. Supplements containing sulfurous compounds like glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, MSM, or DMSO, can be more effective. Glutathione, astaxanthin, selenium, vitamin E, CoQ10, N-acetylcysteine, vitamin C, alpha-lipoic acid.
  9. Get a hit of oxytocin: Oxytocin lifts your mood and acts as an antioxidant, antidepressant, and anti-inflammatory. Naturally released after sex, during childbirth, and breastfeeding, but you can supplement with oxytocin nasal spray (10-21 IU per day). 

Food For Sleep

Sleep Enhancing Food

Fatty cold-water fish like salmon and mackerel contain high amounts of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids, essential nutrients for regulating serotonin and sleep. Stick to more wild and fibrous fruits like kiwifruit. Tart cherries improve sleep by raising melatonin levels. A potent sleep-inducing dinner would be: wild-caught salmon fillets topped with tart cherry sauce or sliced kiwi, along with roasted vegetables, for fiber, and a bit of white rice to boost serotonin secretion. For dessert, try a spoonful of coconut oil topped with a dab of almond butter, a pinch of sea salt, and a drizzle of raw honey. Providing a slow release of energy as well as minerals to regulate blood pressure and cortisol levels. Just don’t eat 2-3 hours before planning on going to sleep. 

Pay Attention to the Glycemic Content of Your Food

If it takes you a long time to fall asleep, consume any high-glycemic index carbohydrates, such as rice, bananas, or baked potatoes, at least 4 hours before bed. Avoid sweet desserts after dinner and instead, consume your nightly bar of dark chocolate or bowl of coconut ice cream when you are in a more insulin sensitive state, such as after a workout. Avoid snacking in the late afternoon and evening, and limit dinner carbohydrates to lower-glycemic index sources like dark, leafy greens and sweet potatoes.

A Drink to Aid Digestion and Relax:

  • 1/2 cup full-fat coconut milk
  • 1 tsp. ginger powder, or 2 tbsp. ground fresh ginger
  • 1 tsp. turmeric powder, or 2 tbsp. ground fresh turmeric
  • 1/4 tsp. ground nutmeg
  • 4 whole peppercorns, crushed
  • 2-3 drops organic liquid stevia
  • 1 tsp. coconut oil
  • Pinch of ground cinnamon (Ceylon is preferred as Cassia has coumarin, which may be toxic to the liver in large amounts)

Place all the ingredients, except the coconut oil and cinnamon in a saucepan over medium heat and bring to a simmer, then turn the heat down to low. Simmer for 5 minutes, then remove the pan from the heat and allow to cool for 5 minutes. Strain the cooled liquid through a fine-mesh strainer or cheesecloth into a class or mug. Add the coconut oil. Sprinkle with ground cinnamon if desired for additional flavor.

Have a Light Dinner

Stop eating when you are 80% full and take a 20–30-minute post-prandial walk to aid digestion and control blood sugar. If you do eat a large meal, take a warm/cold shower to cool your body temperature and enhance deep sleep. If you are having a cold shower, don’t spend too long in there as it will trigger adrenaline release. It may sound counter intuitive, but a hot bath/sauna can also lower the core body temperature as the body will be pushing heat to the surface of the body.  

Consume Adequate Protein

The amino acid tryptophan is found in high concentrations in turkey, chicken, red meat, eggs, fish, spirulina, almonds, and pumpkin seeds. Tryptophan is necessary for your body to produce serotonin and melatonin. You can slightly increase the level of tryptophan in your brain by consuming carbohydrates with these sources. They promote the release of insulin, which shovels all amino acids except tryptophan into muscle or fat tissue. As a result, you have more tryptophan in your blood, so the amino acid transporters in the BBB shuttle more tryptophan into your brain to be turned into serotonin and melatonin. You should aim for 0.55g of protein per pound of body weight per day and increase to 0.7-0.7g if you have sleep problems. For a low-calorie option, you can supplement with essential amino acids (10-20g per day).

Consume Adequate Carbohydrates

If you frequently wake up during the night, you may need more carbohydrates to stop hypoglycemia. On active days, Ben consumes 100-200g slow-release carbohydrates like legumes, amaranth, quinoa, millet, and sweet potatoes. A fat adapted person will enter ketosis by the morning so it is better to get some carbohydrates so you can sleep than to worry about leaving ketosis. Unless you are managing a disease like epilepsy or multiple sclerosis.

Limit Saturated Fat Intake

Low to moderate saturated fat during the evening meal. Don’t overdo it or you’ll feel like you have a brick in your stomach.



When it accumulates in your blood it crosses the BBB and is converted to 5-hydroxytrytamine (5-HT), a precursor of serotonin. 5-HT is also a precursor to melatonin in your pineal gland and causes lethargy and drowsiness. Sources like whey protein can increase tryptophan levels up to 130%. If you eat the recommended protein and carbohydrates, you shouldn’t need tryptophan supplements, but if you do, take 1g to improve sleep. Keep in mind that your sleep stages may be disrupted by the unnatural quantity of serotonin in the system. 

B-Complex Vitamins

Your body produces vitamin B3 (niacin) from tryptophan. It may be beneficial to take supplemental niacin so that the tryptophan you consume is used to synthesize more serotonin instead. Vitamin B9 (folate) and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) also help convert tryptophan into serotonin. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) helps synthesize melatonin; supplementing with B12 is particularly important for vegetarians because it is primarily found in animal foods.


Magnesium helps convert 5-HT into N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, a precursor to melatonin. The most absorbable forms are magnesium threonate (can cross the BBB), citrate, glycinate, taurate, and aspartate, although magnesium that is bound to malate, succinate, or fumirate is also effective. 200-500mg. Consuming more than 1500mg per day can result in loose stools.


Zinc deficiency reduces melatonin levels. Perhaps this is why athletes tend to be zinc deficient and swear by ZMAs (zinc monomethionine aspartate, magnesium aspartate, and vitamin B6). You can get zinc from shellfish and black ant extract. Zinc deficiency is less likely though.  


Chronic use can result in headaches, nausea, daytime drowsiness, and even nightmares. 0.3-12mg to improve sleep. A more natural way is to take 0.3mg microdose at night or increase tryptophan levels.


Found in green tea leaves but can be taken as a supplement. It can reduce stress and increase relaxation without causing drowsiness, most notably when combined with caffeine. L-theanine crosses the BBB in about 30 minutes and improves mental relaxation without loss of alertness by acting directly on the CNS. Once it crosses the BBB, it reduces SNS activity, improves post-stress relaxation, lowers blood pressure, and reduces cortisol levels and anxiety. 100-200mg to start with. With caffeine, 1:4 caffeine to L-theanine ratio (100mg caffeine: 400mg L-theanine).

Vitamin D

Deficiency is strongly associated with musculoskeletal pain and hormone deficiencies. Chronically low levels are associated with poor sleep and may contribute to obstructive sleep apnea and associated cardio vascular disease. Risk factors for low vitamin D levels include dark skin tone, obesity, limited sunlight exposure, pregnancy, chronic anticonvulsant use, chronic steroid use, intestinal malabsorption syndromes, and genetic inability to properly synthesize vitamin D from sunlight. Typical doses range between 2000-4000IU per day and should always be taken with 100-150mcg of vitamin K2 to limit the risk of high blood calcium levels.

Supplementing for Specific Concerns

Mold, mycotoxin, and Lyme issues see benefits from Chinese skullcap root, pulsatilla, greater celandine, and motherwort. In conditions of nervous system damage or being stuck in fight or flight mode, valerian, kava kava, and passionflower, along with 5-HTP, L-tyrosine, Fibroboost, and GABA.

Late night sleep induced snack (if sleep onset isn’t happening)

Sandman’s snack:

  • half an avocado
  • handful of soaked and crushed almonds and/or pumpkin seeds (Styrian variety)
  • 1 tbsp of unpasteurized honey
  • half a banana (not overripe)
  • a touch of unrefined salt
  • 1 dl of relaxing tea: passionflower, chamomile, kava or valerian
  • 1 tbsp. of bee pollen


  • Perform light aerobic exercise early in the morning: 30 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise at 65% of maximum heart rate attained at VO2 max prior to breakfast is highly beneficial for enhancing sleep. It can create a circadian phase shift as powerful as bright light. Leave enough glycogen in the tank for a harder workout later in the day. A 30-minute sunshine walk, a relaxing swim in cold water, or a 30-minute yoga session in a sauna.
  • Compensating for early morning hard training: Training hard in the early morning can damage your sleep patterns. Take strategic naps during the day (20-minute post lunch siesta) and implement sleep hygiene practices at night, such as low artificial light exposure, a cool room, noise elimination, and low amounts of stress.
  • When possible, save hard workouts for the afternoon: Longer workouts (up to 2 and a half hours) between 2:00-6:00pm at 50-80% of VO2 max can drastically improve sleep. You gain the most benefit saving hard workouts for 8 hours before sleep. Try to wrap it up before 7:30pm if you plan on sleeping at 10:30pm.
  • Combat sleep deprivation with aerobic exercise: Long sessions of aerobic exercise or intense 10-minute bouts done every 2 hours during a sleep deprived day can partially alleviate sleepiness during periods of sleep restriction. Nature hikes, several short and fast sessions of kettlebell complexes or a few rounds on an Assault AirBike every two hours.
  • Calm your nervous system following exercise: Exercise increases your body temperature and SNS activity for several hours afterward. Have a warm magnesium salt bath, near infrared light panel (Joov) into the bathroom to enhance magnesium-boosting effects of the magnesium, or have a cold shower before bed.

Sounding and Grounding

Binaural beats are two tones close in frequency that are played together in each ear. As both sounds encounter the brain, they combine for a frequency that’s the difference of the original frequencies (495Hz +505Hz = 10Hz alpha brain wave).

Earthing (grounding) is the practice of exposing your body to the natural magnetic frequencies produced by the earth. When your feet are firmly planted on the ground, you come into contact with negative ions, which are produced by turbulent, crashing water, such as waves at the beach and waterfalls, and rainforests, mountains, and other places affected by rainstorms or thunderstorms. When you are exposed to negative ions, your body releases positive ions that accumulate via cellular metabolism. Accumulated positive ions reduce the natural electrochemical gradient across your cell membranes. Excess positive ions may disrupt the gradient and disrupt cellular metabolism and increase inflammation.

  • Dr. Jeffrey Thompon’s Delta Sleep System tracks or Michael Tyrell’s 2Sleep tracks
  • Ben Greenfield recommends the Pzizz app, SleepStream, or
  • Go barefoot, wear grounding shoes (Earth Runners), sleep with a grounding device under your mattress, or wear a grounding wristband.
  • Wiggling your toes in the dirt, use a mattress or mat wired to the earth through an outlet to tap into the earth’s negative ions and natural magnetic frequency. FlexPulse and the EarthPulse. You can also use the SomniResonance SR1 device, placed on your collarbone to send a delta brain wave inducing signal via the brachial plexus from your shoulder to your brain. Biomat pad produces infrared heating light. BEMER mats, BioBalance mats, and Pulse Center beds, all of which can be used for recovery, hormone production, injuries, headache elimination, and other health effects.


Eating Guidelines

  • Reduce toxins
  • Maintain a healthy balance of various ingredients
  • Avoid packaged foods that claim to be “healthy”. Like low-fat and low-sugar items
  • View mealtimes as a time to share experiences and knowledge with those close to you
  • Consider the environmental impact of your choices, both in the short and long term
  • Add natural, vibrant colors and flavors to your diet
  • Invest in the quality of ingredients, particularly for the products you use the most
  • Regularly measure and analyze the effects of food on your system

Blood Sugar

Foods and Spices That Help to Balance Blood Sugar

  • Cinnamon
  • Bilberry
  • Garlic
  • Sour cherry
  • Apple cider vinegar
  • Coffee
  • Chia
  • Caraway
  • Ginger
  • Shiitake mushrooms
  • Lemon
  • Turmeric
  • Cacao

Supplements That Help to Balance Blood Sugar

  • Chromium
  • Vitamin D
  • Alpha lipoic acid
  • Reishi
  • Maitake
  • Chaga
  • Cordyceps
  • Psyllium
  • MCT oil
  • Gymnema sylvestre
  • Bitter melon
  • Prickly pear cactus
  • Fenugreek
  • Purslane
  • Banaba leaf
  • Milk thistle
  • Resveratrol
  • Magnesium
  • Panax ginseng
  • Berberine
  • Green tea
  • Coriander
  • Vanadyl sulfate

Fasting & Ketosis


  • May extend lifespan by slowing down the aging process
  • May reduce the risk of developing metabolic and chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, arthritis, and neurodegenerative diseases
  • May improve insulin sensitivity and lower blood pressure
  • May reduce oxidative stress in the body
  • May improve the hormonal balance

How To Intermittently Fast

  • Fast overnight and delay the first meal as much as possible (usually until 3-6pm)
  • While fasting, drink plenty of fluids such as mineral water (rich in minerals, delays hunger)
  • Hunger can be delayed by eating a fiber rich apple, low in calories or a cucumber
  • The first meal should consist of protein, fibrous vegetables, and fat.
  • The second (and last) meal, consumed between 8-11pm, should include plenty of carbohydrates as well as fat and protein.
  • Physical exercise is often timed either at the end of the fast in the afternoon or after the first meal
  • The time you eat doesn’t matter as long as it is kept between a 6–8-hour window


The state in which ketone bodies form the body’s primary energy source when carbohydrates have been restricted to less than 50g per day or the overall energy consumed is less than 800kcal per day (very low-calorie diet). If the body is functioning normally, it will be in mild ketosis after an 8-hour sleep. The more obese the individual, the slower the onset of ketosis.

Ketosis is induced incrementally after 3-4 days of low-calorie intake, fasting, or limited carbohydrates, once the body’s glucose stores in the liver and muscles are depleted. It may be accelerated by consuming MCT oil. MCT fatty acids are rapidly used for energy and readily absorbed. They are also quickly moved into mitochondria and unlike long-chain fatty acids, they do not require carnitine to oxidize fats.

No long-term studies have been done yet, so it isn’t recommended as a long-term strategy.

Potential Benefits of Ketosis

  • Effective weight loss method in the short term
  • An effective method in the treatment of epilepsy
  • May reduce the risk of CVD
  • May reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes
  • May help treat acne
  • May be helpful in the adjuvant therapy for cancer
  • May help treat polycystic ovary syndrome
  • May help treat degenerative neurological diseases (AD and PD)

Ketone Body Levels in the Blood

  • <0.2: No ketosis
  • 0.2-0.5: Mild ketosis
  • 0.5-3.0: Ketosis caused by food consumption
  • 2.5-3.5: Post-exercise ketosis
  • 3.0-6.0: Ketosis caused by starvation
  • 15-25: Ketoacidosis


Phase 1: Converting foreign matter into harmless compounds

Supporting nutrients:

  • Vitamin B complex
  • Glutathione (main antioxidant in the liver)
  • BCAAs
  • Flavonoids
  • Phospholipids
  • Carotenoids
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin E
  • Selenium, zinc, copper, and manganese
  • Ubiquinone (COQ10)
  • Silybum marianum (milk thistle)
  • Artichoke
  • Turmeric
  • Cruciferous plants
  • Grapefruit

Phase 2: A water soluble molecule is bound to the substance to be removed in order for the compound to be safely removed through the intestine or the kidneys

Supporting nutrients:

  • Alpha lipoic acid (ALA)
  • N-acetylcysteine (NAC)
  • Calcium D-glucarate
  • MSM
  • Amino acids
    • Glycine
    • Taurine
    • Glutamine
    • Cysteine
    • Methionine

Toxin Release with Niacin

Niacin releases a large volume of fatty acids and toxins from fat cells over 2-3 hours after consumption. Initially niacin inhibits lipolysis. In liver cells, niacin promotes fat beta-oxidation and inhibits the synthesis of fatty acids. Combining niacin with exercise boosts circulation and detoxification:

  • Start with 500mg dose of slowly absorbing niacin and wait 20 minutes
  • You may increase by 500-1000mg per week (max dose is 5000mg)
  • Move briskly for 20-30 minutes (raise body temperature and increase lymphatic and blood flow)
  • After exercise, enter a preheated infrared sauna (minimum 40C) for 15-60 minutes
  • While in the sauna, you may consume coconut water or other mineral rich fluids to prevent dehydration and to replace sweated out minerals
  • At the end of the sauna, take 2-5 activated charcoal capsules that bind toxins secreted in the intestine
  • Start the protocol with caution and moderation if you are aware that your body has accumulated a great deal of toxins or if your body fat percentage is high
  • Have your liver function values checked every 2 weeks during
  • Maximum duration is 30 days during which it is recommended to eat healthy fats and minerals
  • Complete the protocol 2-3 times per week.
  • You may feel detoxification symptoms, which will pass. Consult your doctor if you have any chronic illnesses before starting

Digestion and Gut Health

Eating Habits

  • Chew carefully
  • Avoid stress at mealtimes
  • Spend at least 20min eating
  • Avoid drinking liquids during meals (dilutes stomach acids)

Foods That Support Digestion

  • Fresh carrot juice (supports intestinal mucous membranes)
  • Celery juice (promotes intestinal movements and alleviates constipation)
  • Level of hydrochloric acid (betaine hydrochloride, HCL)
  • Carminatives reduce gas in the intestine:
    • Orange, fennel, ginger, cinnamon, cardamom, cilantro, caraway, licorice, oregano, parsley, peppermint oil, rosemary, sage, lemon balm, dill, thyme, garlic
  • Bitters stimulate the production of stomach acids and digestive enzymes
    • Jerusalem artichoke, Angelica sylvestris root, yellow gentian, Angelica archangelica root
  • Aloe vera, pineapple, chia seeds, chlorella, sauerkraut, currants, Iceland moss, chamomile, cranberries, oats, meadowsweet, blueberries, oregano, chaga mushrooms, papaya, linseeds, horse radishes, lingonberries, psyllium, rhubarb root, plantago, rosehip, spirulina, sea buckthorn, raspberry leaf, wheatgrass, valeriana

Dietary Supplements That Support Digestion

  • Hydrochloric acid and pepsin
  • L-glutamine
    • Maintains the conditions of the intestinal mucous membrane
    • Repairs gut permeability
  • Silica and silicic acid-carmellose gel
    • Protects the mucous membrane of the stomach
  • Magnesium
    • May facilitate defecation and improve the movements of the digestive tract.
    • An important mineral for the intestinal epithelium
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamins A, D, and E
    • Improve the regeneration of mucous membranes
  • Phospholipids and lecithin:
    • Promote the absorption of fats
  • Digestive enzymes

Biohacker’s Kitchen

  • Herb garden
  • Extensive spice rack
  • Sousvide cooker
  • Powerful blender
  • Dark glass bottles
  • Titanium frying pan
  • Boiler
  • Induction cooker
  • Accessible utensils
  • Water filter
  • Coffee grinder
  • Plenty of vegetables in the fridge
  • Energy efficient refrigerator
  • Berries and game in the freezer


Coffee may extend the life span, lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and prevent premature death from these illnesses. Health effects are most likely due to the antioxidants (such as polyphenols). More than 1000 antioxidant compounds have been found in coffee, even more in green tea and cocoa.

The caffeine effects are due to genetic makeup. The CYP1A2 gene affects the body’s ability to remove caffeine from the system, and the VDR gene is associated with caffeine’s negative effects on bone health.

Risk factors are pesticides and mycotoxins. Water washing significantly reduces the level of mycotoxins and when washed properly, the ochratoxin A (OTA) level of green coffee beans is reduced by 90%. In addition to this, roasting destroys 69-96% of the remaining OTA.


  • Organic or pesticide-free, pure coffee
  • Single origin
  • Water washed
  • Grown at high altitudes
  • Avoid instant, blends of several coffee bean varieties, and grown near sea level
  • Time coffee consumption at a sensible part of the day
  • Purchase freshly roasted coffee
  • Grind the beans yourself immediately before use
  • Use a metal filter, avoid paper filters processed with chemicals
  • Only purchase coffee for a maximum of two weeks’ consumption at a time
  • Always store coffee in an airtight container
  • Use kitchen scales to measure the ratio of coffee to water
  • Do not over brew
  • Do not add sugar, milk, or cream

Biohacker’s Coffee

  • 16g high quality coffee beans (grown in volcanic soil at high altitude, Central American, water washed, organic)
  • 250ml nearly boiling spring water or filtered tap water (91C)
  • 1 tbsp grass-fed butter
  • 1 tbsp caprylic acid, MCT oil or cold pressed coconut oil
  • Add flavor with a pinch of genuine vanilla, Ceylon cinnamon and/or chaga extract


Tea quality depends on processing methods and age of the leaves. The most valued leaves are new leaves growing near the blooms. Tea leaves are rich in polyphenols such as flavonoids, theanine, theophylline, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and other catechins. All teas contain 30-90mg of caffeine per cup depending on the variety and the preparation method.

Green Tea

30-40% of water-soluble polyphenols, whereas black tea only contains 3-10%. Green tea is suitable for those with caffeine sensitivity due to high theanine content. A comprehensive meta-analysis found it lowers blood pressure, total cholesterol and LDL, levels of fasting glucose and long-term glucose. Also shown to slow memory deterioration. 5-7 cups a day for optimal benefits.

Yerba Mate

Rich in antioxidants such as quercetin, vitamins B and C and magnesium, potassium, and zinc. Also, several stimulating xanthines that are also present in coffee (caffeine), tea (theophylline) and cocoa (theobromine). May improve mood, lower cholesterol levels, and reduce inflammation as well as balance blood sugar.

Pu-erh Tea

Black tea from the Yunnan province in China. Rich on polysaccharides, polyphenols, and statins. Slightly less caffeine than coffee.

Oolong Tea

Rich in antioxidants such as various catechins and polyphenols. Shown to improve blood lipid values and has a strong effect on the GABA-A receptors (calming neurotransmitters.

White Tea

Slightly more caffeine and equal amounts of antioxidants to green tea. May reduce the risk of stroke. In animal studies it was shown to prevent atherosclerosis. Used topically, white and green tea may protect the skin from the harmful UV rays of the sun.


  • Pu-erh tea after a high fat meal (85-95C, 12s-2min)
  • Green tea with meals (60-80C, 1-2min)
  • Sencha, matcha, gyokuro
  • Oolong tea when you need to concentrate (80-85C, 2-3min)
  • White tea (60-70C, 3-5min)
  • Yerba mate, when working (60-70C, 3-5min)
  • Caffeine free herbal tea in the evening


  • Bagged teas
  • Prepared ice teas
  • Black tea
  • Using milk with tea (inhibits health benefits of flavonoids)

Bristol Stool Chart

Type 1:

  • Separate, small, hard clumps
  • Feces have remained in the bowel for too long, absorbing the water
  • Not enough fiber in the diet

Type 2:

  • Solid, firm, visibly lumpy
  • Often appears when constipated
  • Typical of IBS

 Type 3:

  • Solid, firm, cracks in the surface
  • Similar to Type 2 but passed through the bowel more quickly

Type 4 (ideal):

  • Solid, soft and smooth
  • Good amount of fiber in the diet
  • Typical of people who defecate once a day

Type 5 (ideal):

  • Separate, soft, clearly defined blobs
  • Typical of people who defecate 2-3 times a day after each main meal

Type 6:

  • Fluffy pieces, mushy stool
  • May indicate high blood pressure
  • Typical of individuals who react to stress with their stomachs

Type 7:

  • Entirely liquid
  • May be normal diarrhea or appear together with Type 1
  • Typical of elderly and children

Refer to stool color online.

Defecation Position

Should be in a deep squat. This fully relaxes the puborectalis muscle allowing the colon to empty quickly and completely. Sitting on a Western toilet does allow for the full relaxation of the puborectalis, keeping the colon kinked and blocking waste removal.

The Microbiome

To Support the Microbiome

  • Fermentable fibers, i.e. prebiotics like inulin, pectin, and oligofructose
  • Fermented foods
  • Resistant starch, i.e. green bananas, cooked and subsequently refrigerated rice and potatoes as well as cereals
  • Polyphenols
  • Dark chocolate (polyphenols and fermentable fibers)
  • Pistachios
  • Probiotics (particularly soil-based strains)

Avoid These

  • Antibiotics (unless necessary)
  • Pesticides containing glyphosate (including Roundup). Used as a pesticide on cereals, GMO soybeans and corn. Meat from animals that have fed on the plants mentioned above. May be one of the factors contributing to celiac disease
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol
  • Chronic stress
  • Continuous negative thoughts and feelings


Living microbes that have a positive effect on our health.

Health Benefits

  • Alleviating constipation
  • May help acute diarrhea
  • Preventing traveler’s diarrhea (particularly Saccharomyces boulardii)
  • Facilitating the treatment of IBS
  • Stopping the progress of inflammatory intestinal diseases, may help recovery (particularly Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis)
  • Facilitating recovery from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Preventing and treating diarrhea caused by antibiotics

Probiotic Foods

  • Sauerkraut and other fermented vegetables
  • Fermented vegetable juices
  • Kefir
  • Kombucha
  • Kimchi
  • Natto
  • Tempeh
  • Jun tea


Indigestible fiber compounds such as oligo- and polysaccharides used as a growth medium by the bacterial strain of the intestine. Promotes the growth of benign probiotic bacteria in the intestine. May have a positive effect on the absorption of trace elements, the immune system, blood pressure, and reduced risk of colon cancer.

Resistant starch, found in potato starch, is beneficial for the microbiome, insulin sensitivity and obesity as well as hunger regulation in rodents and humans. Inulin and oligo-fructose are prebiotics that promote the wellbeing of the intestine as well as health benefits from dietary fiber.

Ratio of inulin to oligo-fructose per 100g

  • Chicory root – 41.6g/2.9g
  • Jerusalem artichoke – 18g/1.5g
  • Dandelion leaves – 13.5g/10.8g
  • Garlic – 12.5g/5g
  • Leek – 6.5g/5.2g
  • Asparagus – 2.5g/2.5g
  • Banana – 0.5g/0.5g

Cooking Methods

  • Slow cooking
  • Boiling
  • Stewing
  • Steaming
  • Oven-baking slowly
  • Sous-vide
  • Raw food
  • Fermentation
  • Frying with water

Try to Avoid

  • Frying at a temperature higher than 140C (285F)
  • Stewing in tinfoil
  • Grilling
  • Cooking in the microwave
  • Flambéing
  • Smoking
  • Deep frying

Measuring Nutrition

Levels of Micronutrients and Trace Elements

  • From blood
  • Hair
  • Urine

Fatty Acids

  • Blood

Amino Acids

  • Blood
  • Urine

Heavy Metals

  • Blood
  • Hair
  • Urine

Testing for Allergies

  • Elimination diet
  • Skin prick test
  • IgE and IgG antibody tests

Digestion Analyses

  • Comprehensive digestion analysis
  • Measuring gut permeability and malabsorption
  • Measuring the possible small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)
  • Measuring stomach acid and enzymes
  • Testing for Helicobacter pylori

Microbiome Analysis

  • Balance of the microbial bacteria
  • Helpful bacterial strain
  • Harmful bacterial strain
  • Yeast fungi
  • Amoebas and other parasites

Daily Food Diary

  • Macronutrients
  • Micronutrient amounts from the food eaten
  • Calorie intake compared to the daily energy expenditure (basal metabolic rate and physical activity)
  • Water consumed (1.5-2l per day recommended)
  • Caffeine intake (max 400mg)
  • The amount of salt in the food eaten (max 5g)
  • Regularity of mealtimes
  • Photos of the meals eaten

Hangover Damage Control

When you drink alcohol, your pituitary gland produces less anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), so you stop retaining as much water. As soon as the alcohol starts to wear off, ADH production starts again, which causes a rebound of fluid retention, swollen hands and feet, a puffy face, and a headache as blood pressure rises. At the same time, your kidneys pump out more renin and aldosterone, promoting the secretion of vasopressin, which increases blood pressure by inducing sodium retention and potassium loss. Cortisol then works with aldosterone to balance electrolyte levels, contributing to more fluid retention and raised blood sugar levels by converting amino acids into glucose in your liver. The pancreas then produces more insulin, putting abnormal stress on the pancreas and liver. These elevated levels of cortisol can also cause catabolism as well as redistribution of body fat from legs and arms to the belly. Your liver converts ethanol into acetaldehyde and acetate, which causes increased production of tiny blood vessel constrictors called thromboxanes. Thromboxanes also cause blood platelets to stick together and form clots and decrease levels of natural killer cells, inducing headaches, nausea, and diarrhea. Finally, most alcohol contains congeners, which are found in high concentrations in dark colored liquors like brandy, wine, dark tequila, and whiskey. They contain free radicals and positively charged molecules that can disrupt your acid-alkaline balance and increase your body’s need to step up antioxidant activity. Putting you into fight or flight mode to handle the congeners, making you suffer gastrointestinal issues, nausea, headaches, sweatiness, clamminess, and/or chills. So yeah… Not a great beverage choice. 


  • Abstinence or small amounts in good company
  • Homemade tinctures
  • Homemade herbal beer and alcoholic cider
  • Clear liquor packaged in glass bottles (potato based is preferable to grain based)
    • Russian Standard Imperia
    • Russian Standard Platinum
  • Gin, tequila, and whiskey
  • Champagne
  • Biodynamic red wines (low tannin, no added sulfites)
  • Natural wines
  • Classic herbal beers
  • Sprite or equivalent lemon and lime mixer (accelerates the acetaldehyde breakdown in the system)
  • Ethanol (C2H6O)->Acetaldehyde (C2H4O)->Acetic acid (C2H4O2)->Water & CO2

1-3 days Before

  • Sleep plenty. Limit omega-6 fatty acids and emphasize monounsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids. PUFAs increase liver damage in response to alcohol, while more stable fats like cocoa butter and coconut oil protect against it.

During the Day

  • Work out. Strength training or HIIT prior to heavy eating or drinking can improve glycemic response. Exercise also increases antioxidant activity and reduces alcohol-induced liver damage.
  • Eat several egg yolks or a serving of liver. Topping up choline stores which the liver will be burning through to mitigate damage. Doubling fish oil helps too.

1 Hour Before

  • Eat a spoonful of extra-virgin avocado oil, extra-virgin olive oil, and red palm oil. The polyphenols in olive oil and avocado oil and the vitamin E in red palm oil can protect against alcohol-induced oxidative stress, and the monounsaturated and saturated fats in all 3 protect the liver.
  • Eat a light meal to slow the absorption of alcohol. Plenty of polyphenol-rich plants and spices, including turmeric powder, ginger, berries, and beets. Fish, beets, nuts, salad, scrambled eggs, turmeric powder, and kale in a tortilla or nori wrap. Add a handful of nuts, dried ginger, dark chocolate, and berries. Make sure you salt the meals with a good mineral-rich salt.
  • Take 500-600mg of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and 1g of vitamin C. NAC is a precursor to glutathione, the antioxidant responsible for metabolizing alcohol. Vitamin C helps to supply it.
  • Take 300-400mg of magnesium. Alcohol depletes magnesium and causes constipation.
  • Mix a few spoonfuls of collagen powder into a smoothie or drink or drink a cup of organic bone broth. The glycine in collagen and gelatin reduces lipid peroxidation and antioxidant depletion in the liver. Adding vitamin C with a supplement or a squeeze of lemon can increase glycine absorption.
  • Drink a cup or two of green tea or matcha. Green tea contains polyphenols that protect against ethanol-induced oxidative stress, and the caffeine and L-theanine in the tea can give you a stable, slow release of energy. You can always add the items from the previous comment into the tea.


  • 500mg vitamin C and 200mg N-acetylcysteine (NAC) before each drink (if not consumed earlier)
  • 300mg ginseng (accelerates the exit of acetaldehyde from the system)
  • A glass of water with each drink
  • Add a pinch of salt or one effervescent electrolyte tablet to each glass of water you consume
  • Drink only the highest quality alcohol available and avoid high-fructose corn syrup, added sugars, and other nasty ingredients. Gin or vodka mixed into sparkling water with bitters or a splash of fresh juice; organic or biodynamic wine; or a noncaloric soda such as Zevia mixed with wine and ice.
  • Stay active to ensure you metabolize snacks and alcohol better


  • Vitamin B complex
  • Electrolytes (unrefined sea salt and coconut water)
  • Broccoli (sulforaphane eliminates toxic acetaldehyde)
  • Fresh ginger (2-3cm prevents nausea)

Before Bed

  • Mix 1/2 tsp. of sea salt, the juice from 1 lime or lemon, 1 tbsp. of blackstrap molasses, and 1 and a half cups of water. Drink 45 minutes before bed to give yourself time to pee. Add 1500mg of any vitamin C.
  • Consume another 200mg of magnesium, or a full 400-600mg if you haven’t yet already
  • Take 4 capsules of activated charcoal to absorb toxins in the gut from strange party foods or excess sugars
  • Take 3-10mg of melatonin

In the Morning

  • Drink the same pre-bed drink
  • Take four more capsules of activated charcoal
  • Consume a breakfast that includes eggs and/or liver. Or find some pate
  • Exercise lightly or sit in a sauna. Sweat, then take a cold shower

Hangover Cure Drink

  • 1 1/4 cup of coconut water
  • 1 avocado
  • Juice from half a lemon
  • Couple of broccoli buds
  • 300mg red ginseng
  • 2-3cm piece of ginger
  • 2 egg yolks
  • 1 tsp of chlorella
  • Sea salt and fenugreek, to taste
  • Blended


Exercise Guideline

  • Exercise in a regular, but varied manner
  • Train equally in strength, speed, agility, balance, and endurance
  • Increase everyday incidental exercise
  • Utilize your body weight
  • Exercise outdoors whenever possible
  • Quality over quantity
  • Exercise in good company
  • Maintain the balance between exercise and rest
  • Never stop playing

Biohacker’s Gym

  • Gymnastic rings
  • Vibration plate
  • Dietary supplements
  • Activity tracker
  • Heart rate monitor
  • Resistance band
  • Muscle stimulator
  • Pull up bar
  • Ice/weight vest
  • Foam roller
  • Kettlebell
  • Massage ball
  • Mini trampoline
  • Yoga mat
  • Infrared sauna

Methods to Improve Physical Performance

Aspects of Physical Performance

1. Endurance: The ability of the respiratory and circulatory system to acquire, process, and deliver oxygen to tissues.

2. Muscular Endurance: The ability of the body (specifically the muscles) to process, store, and utilize energy.

3. Muscular Strength: The ability of the muscle or muscle group to produce force.

4. Mobility: The maximal range of motion (ROM) of joints.

5. Muscular Power: The ability of the muscle or muscle group to produce maximal force as quickly as possible.

6. Speed: The ability to perform a recurring action as quickly as possible.

7. Coordination: The ability to combine several actions into fluid and continuous movement.

8. Agility: The ability to minimize the transition time between two actions.

9. Balance: The ability to control changes in body position in relation to gravity.

10. Accuracy: The ability to control movement of varying intensity and direction.

Endurance Training
  • Endurance training takes place in the basic endurance zone (approx. 70-80% of the training session)
  • A focus on technique training
  • Training should be progressive in nature and there should be sufficient time reserved for recovery
  • HIIT is particularly effective for increasing mitochondrial number and VO2max
  • Perform various interval exercises in the tempo and maximal endurance zones
    • Short intervals (HIIT); 15-45s, rest for 15s-3min
    • Long intervals; 3-8min exercise intervals, rest for 1-4min.
    • Incremental intervals; 8-20min exercise intervals, varying rest intervals. The intensity is lower than the long interval training.

Strength training increases the effectiveness of endurance exercise and improves performance.

Perform restorative exercises and avoid overtraining.

Heart Rate Zones and Lactate Levels for Endurance Training

Zone 1/Basic Endurance 1:

  • Goal: Recovery, warm-up, and cool down
  • Energy systems: Aerobic (oxidative)
  • % of lactate threshold: 70-76%
  • Intensity (% of HR max): 50-60%
  • Description: Light aerobic exercise may facilitate recovery by boosting circulation (removing inflammatory agents) and the secretion of growth hormones. E.g., walking a dog, hiking, light swimming, yard work, yoga, etc.

Zone 2/Basic Endurance 2:

  • Goal: Endurance
  • Energy systems: Aerobic
  • % of lactate threshold: 77-85%
  • Intensity (% of HR max): 60-70%
  • Description: Beneficial for slow twitch muscle cells and the improvement of basic endurance. Energy utilized mainly from the adipose tissue. 

Zone 3/Tempo Endurance 1:

  • Goal: Muscular endurance
  • Energy systems: Aerobic and glycolytic
  • % of lactate threshold: 86-95%
  • Intensity (% of HR max): 70-80%
  • Description: Increases exertion and improves aerobic power. Breathing is heavy but steady. Significant consumption of energy reserves; there is a risk of overtraining in this heart rate zone

Zone 4/Tempo Endurance 2:

  • Goal: Muscular endurance, lactic acid tolerance, speed
  • Energy systems: Aerobic and glycolytic
  • % of lactate threshold: 96-103%
  • Intensity (% of HR max): 80-90%
  • Description: Takes place on either side of the lactate threshold and improves tolerance. Breathing is heavy and laborious. Improves fast muscle cells and recovery in this heart zone. Useful in interval training (2:1 to 1:3 exertion to recovery)

Zone 5/Maximal Endurance:

  • Goal: Speed maintenance, development in exercise technique and economy, the effective removal of lactic acid
  • Energy systems: Glycolytic, creatine phosphate
  • % of lactate threshold: 104%-max
  • Intensity (% of HR max): 90-100%
  • Description: Exertion always exceeds the lactate threshold. Very exhausting and arduous. Suitable for short interval exercises. Longer recovery period

Beyond Zone 5:

  • Goal: Explosive speed, power
  • Energy systems: Creatine phosphate (glycolytic when duration exceeds 5s)
  • % of lactate threshold: Max
  • Intensity (% of HR max): –
  • Description: Improves strength, explosive speed, and fast muscle cells. Performed as short explosive intervals (1:4 to 1:10). Powerlifting, weight training, and plyometrics

If your endurance fitness is good but you get fatigued as soon as your muscles start producing lactic acid, you should add intervals in heart rate zone 4.

If intervals pose no problem but you get fatigued during prolonged exercises performed at a steady pace, you should add exercises in heart rate zone 2 and intervals in zone 3.

If you can’t sprint to the finish at the end of a 5km run, you should add intervals in heart rate zone 5 (maximal endurance).

If your body is slow to recover, add exercises in heart rate zone 1.

Strength Training

Physical strength is determined by two factors: the cross-sectional area of a muscle as well as muscle fiber volume and their contractile intensity. Force generation hinges on the ability of the nervous system to command, recruit, and organize the muscle fibers more efficiently. The strength of connective tissue, such as tendons and fibrous tissues, also affect the ability of the muscles to generate force. Force generation also varies with cell type distribution, sex, age, hormonal balance, nervous system function, general health, and nutritional status.

Key Factors

  • Perform the exercises using correct technique and form
  • Favor multi-joint exercises (deadlift, front squat, back squat, pull-up, bench-press, dip, shoulder press, etc.) over single joint exercises as the latter do not bring any significant additional benefits
  • Progressively increase weight between exercises, start for example with 60-70% of the maximal performance capacity
  • Progressively increase exercise volume, i.e. the number of sets or repetitions
  • Vary the tempo and time under tension (TUT)
  • Get sufficient rest and vary the length of recovery periods
  • Reduce the training load every 3-4 weeks
  • Change up your training program every 1-3 months

HIRT: Resistance training HIIT

Shorter recovery periods are better at producing GH and improving muscular endurance.

  • Always complete a full-body workout
  • 5-15 reps per exercise
  • 3-4 supersets per workout
  • Warm up for 10-15 minutes before
  • Complete the workout 48-72 hours after the previous workout to ensure recovery
  • You can also use a basic barbell and weights for complexes


1. Superset 1 (8-10 min without breaks)

  • a. Deadlift (20% 1RM) x 10
  • b. Clap pushups x 5
  • c. Pull-up with overhand grip x 5
  • Ab wheel (knees on ground) x 6-10

2. S2 (8-10 minutes without breaks)

  • a. Jump squat x 5
  • b. Pull-up with underhand grip x 5
  • c. Bench press (20% 1RM) x 10
  • d. Knee lift to elbows (hanging) x 6


  • a. Bulgarian lunges x 5/leg
  • b. Inverted row on a bar or rings x 10
  • c. Push up x 10
  • d. V-ups x 8

The Basic Gear

  • Kettlebell
  • Jump rope
  • Weighted backpack
  • Weighted vest
  • Medicine ball
  • Stability ball (Swiss)
  • Training mask:
    • High amounts of CO2 build up. So, they can be good for increasing mental tolerance and stress resilience. When the respiratory compensation threshold is reached, a significant portion of the body’s drive to breathe is based on accumulating lactic acid levels. Which results in heavier respiration, inspiratory and expiratory muscle fatigue and an overall inability to sustain high intensity exercise. In studies, training masks act by increasing the RCT, which helps you develop the ability to sustain high-intensity exercise for a longer period of time.
  • PowerLung:
    • A small, handheld resistance training device for the lungs. The best way to build fitness in your diaphragm and inspiratory and expiratory muscles is to train them.
  • Relaxator:
    • Mouthpiece breathing device which adjusts resistance to exhaled mouth breathing. To maintain high levels of oxygen and CO2 simultaneously. Stimulates the diaphragm to work more efficiently.
  • Handgrip trainer
  • Neuro-grips:
    • Puts your system into neural overdrive, while trying to perform exercises like the push up on the device (essentially a grip on a thin piece of steel).
  • Elastic bands (or the x3 bar):
    • Squat to overhead press
    • Side shuffles
    • Push-ups
    • Torso twists
    • Rows
  • Suspension strap (e.g., TRX)
  • Slider plates:
    • Knee tuck
    • Mountain climber
    • Skater
    • Reaching reverse lunge
    • Alligator walks
  • Rings (wooden is easier to hold than plastic)
  • Hex bar:
    • Allows dead lifting with minimal backpain.
  • Blood flow restriction (BFR) straps
    • Kaatsu training straps, a sensor-monitored pneumatic air band that allows a user to set a very precise pressure, whereas a BFR strap is a glorified tourniquet (much cheaper though). Excellent while doing TRX workouts, kettlebells, isometric training, cardio machines, etc.

The Upgrades

  • Keg
  • Tire
  • Sandbag
  • Yoga trapeze:
    • Operates in the concepts of traction and inversion. Traction refers to and treatment or technique that pulls or lengthens the spine or other joints. Inverted positions alter blood flow and the flow of cerebrospinal fluid and can increase capillarization to the brain.
  • Inversion table
  • Rebounder:
    • Mini trampolining to increase the heart rate and expend oxygen while doing exercise that doesn’t feel strenuous.
  • Plyometric boxes or bench
  • Barbell rack
  • Electrical muscle stimulator:
    • Compex, Marc Pro, NeuFit
  • X3 bar
    • Isokinetic training: pushes back at your body the harder you press. Studies have found this type of variable resistance training creates muscle 3 times faster than conventional weight training with double to triple the gains in 1RM and triple the gains in average power. Variable resistance has shown to produce greater anabolic hormone responses and a higher increase in serum testosterone and GH than conventional lifting.
  • Rowing machine
  • VersaClimber
  • Incline treadmill
  • TrueForm treadmill (no motor)
  • Assault AirBike
  • Stand-up desk
  • Vibration Trainer:
    • Good for lymph flow in the morning, bodyweight workouts, and isometric squat and push-up holds. Frequencies between 25-40Hz.
  • Vasper:
    • Ice sleeves wrapped around your appendages prior to and during training, grounded pads on the pedals, and pressurized cuffs, all in an elliptical-styled workout. Compression of the arms and legs while exercising at a low intensity has been shown to create the physiological effect of high-intensity exercise, also compressing the muscles to create quick lactic acid build up. This high lactic acid build up triggers a systemic recovery response, including the release of GH and testosterone. As your body temperature increases, blood vessels dilate at the surface, increasing blood flow to the skin and leaving less oxygen available for the muscles. When there is not enough blood to clear lactic acid, fatigue sets in. So, the ice-cold water in the sleeves allows for a cooling effect to make higher intensities more efficient and pleasant. 21-minute workouts, 3 times per week. Too expensive!!!
  • ARX:
    • A machine that applies opposing resistance in direct proportion to the force you are applying throughout the rep. The entire effort is then recorded and displayed on the software.
  • PeakFitPro:
    • A static contraction, isometric training machine.
  • LiveO2:
    • Exercise with oxygen therapy (EWOT) is a method of breathing higher levels of oxygen during exercise in order to increase the amount of oxygen in your blood plasma. Promoting an expansion of capillaries and enhancing blood perfusion of congested capillary beds.
  • Pulse Centers Pulse XL Pro PEMF Table
  • Infrared Sauna

Ben Greenfield used a Biomat before getting a True Wave II, which contains a carbon-based infrared heater with virtually no EMF.

Heat & Cold Exposure

Cold Thermogenesis

May boost metabolism, circulation, and also activate brown adipose tissue (BAT) found in the back of the neck and upper back. BAT is used to quickly generate heat by burning white adipose tissue. The activation of BAT also increases the use of glucose in the energy metabolism of cells. Regular exposure may increase BAT, helping in weight management, reducing the tendency to feel cold and improving cold tolerance.

The shivering reflex is initiated by the hypothalamus, activating the SNS, constricting blood vessels in hands, feet, and layers of skin to protect vital functions.

The trigeminal nerve (linked to the vagus nerve) is especially sensitive to cold.

Ways of Inducing Cold Thermogenesis

  • Submerge your head into a bucket of ice water (5-10C) for 30s
  • Cold showers
  • Cold plunges
  • Cryotherapy

Adaptogens (rhodiola rosea, ginseng, cordyceps or ashwagandha) may increase the ability to tolerate the stress. Also, tyrosine.

It is unwise to practice cold thermogenesis after intensive strength training. It may prevent beneficial effects on muscle growth and blood vessel development from preventing hormetic stress. Wait at the very least 2 hours.

Sauna and Heat Exposure

Traditional saunas boost the production of GH, improve metabolism, and increase O2 uptake. It can also reduce joint pain and improve joint mobility, as well as easing tension headaches.

2-3 saunas per week have been shown to lower risk of coronary heart disease. It produces heat shock proteins that may have positive effects on muscle growth. Spending time in a sauna may also increase insulin sensitivity, which is beneficial for weight loss.

Sauna bath:

  • Stay in for a minimum of 15 minutes at a time
  • Two 20-minute sauna sessions in more than 80C with a 30-minute cooling break in between may increase production of GH up to 16-fold
  • Spend 15-30 minutes in the sauna followed by 5-20 minutes in a cold shower – done 2-3 hours before bed time – will improve sleep quality.
  • To maximize recovery and muscle growth, spend a minimum of 30 minutes in the sauna after exercise

Infrared Sauna:

3-12 micrometers, which falls under far-infrared (FIR). Found to have tissue effects on mitochondria respiratory chain in the cell energy production process and the blood supply of tissues by dilating blood vessels and improving circulation. In Japan, they use it for Waon therapy, to increase stroke volume, cardiac output, and ejection fraction in heart failure patients.

Other health benefits:

  • Reduces oxidative stress
  • Speeds up recovery from exercise
  • May reduce short and long-term pain
  • May promote the detoxification of the body through increased microcirculation and deep sweating caused by infrared radiation
  • May be used as a treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome

Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

Helpful for increasing muscle activation, rehabilitation, strength and endurance, etc. The effective activation depends on the progressive increase of electrical current intensity, variations in muscle length, and the positioning of the electrodes. To maximize muscle tension, the recommendation is 100-400 microsecond biphasic rectangular pulses at the frequency of 50-100Hz conducted using the highest tolerable electrical current. Training should be slow and incremental to minimize adverse effects and excessive fatigue.

Vibration Training

Boosts lymphatic and peripheral circulation and improves proprioception. Useful for overweight people.


Miniature trampolining improves blood circulation and oxygen uptake.

Measuring Exercise and Physical Performance


  • Energy production – aerobic and anaerobic processes
  • Neuromuscular system function – muscular strength and maximal force generation, speed strength and explosiveness, strength endurance
  • Mobility, agility, and coordination
  • Recovery speed/time

UKK Walk Test for VO2 max/Oxygen Uptake

Walk 2km, on a flat surface, as fast as possible. Adequate accuracy is achieved when the heart rate is at least 80% of maximum. Not recommended for people with very high fitness.

  • Men: 184.9 – 4.65 x (time in minutes) – 0.22 x (heartbeat) – 0.26 x (age) – 0.39 x (BMI)
  • Women: 116.2 – 2.98 x (time in minutes) – 0.11 x (heartbeat) – 0.14 x (age) – 0.39 x (BMI)

Clinical Exercise Stress Test (exercise ECG)

Usually done on a bicycle to detect cardiovascular disease potential. Good for measuring aerobic fitness and anaerobic force generation, as it is performed to exhaustion. Arterial blood oxygen and lung function may also be measured. Athletes usually undergo more comprehensive testing, i.e. running spiroergometry. This tests for oxygen consumption and CO2 production and therefore anaerobic threshold. The more comprehensive version can measure lactic acid level in arterial blood.

Cooper Test

Running as far as possible in 12 minutes. Apparently, there is a strong correlation between test results and maximal oxygen uptake. Better for runners as it utilizes running economy and technique.

Anaerobic Fitness

Power and capacity. Anaerobic power tests are affected by the subject’s pain tolerance and motivation. Anaerobic capacity is affected by phosphocreatine and lactate utilization properties of the muscles.

Wingate Anaerobic Test

A bicycle ergometer test that measures anaerobic capacity. 5-10minutes low-power warm-up followed by 30s of pedaling completed using maximal power and a standardized load. Should be completed in the afternoon or evening during peak power times.

Measurable quantities:

  • Peak power (PP)
    • Power produced in the first 5s (W)
  • Relative peak power (RPP)
    • Peak power proportional to body weight
  • Anaerobic fatigue (AF)
    • Percentage of power lost by the end of the test vs. the starting peak power
    • Indicative of lactic acid tolerance – the higher the percentage, the lower the lactic acid tolerance level
  • Anaerobic capacity (AC)
    • Total amount of work performed during the test

MART Test (maximal anaerobic running test)

Used to test properties related to endurance and speed.

RAST Test (running based anaerobic sprint test)

Similar to Wingate. Used in ball sports to measure lactic acid tolerance levels. Involves running 35m six times as fast as possible.

  • power = bodyweight x distance2/time3

Tests That Measure Mobility and Body Control

  • Spine, hip, shoulder, knee, and ankle joint ROM tests.
  • Home tests:
    • Forward bend test
    • Shoulder mobility test
    • Straight leg rise test
    • Lateral flexion test

Tests That Measure Body Control and Agility

  • Balance test on one foot (>30s is good)
  • Y balance test
  • Balance beam test
  • Zigzag sprint
  • Shuttle run test
  • Throwing a tennis ball at a wall from 2-3m with one hand and catching with the other hand
  • Agility T-test

Functional Movement Screen (FMS – Gray Cook)

  • Deep squat
  • Hurdle step
  • Trunk stability push-up
  • Rotary stability
  • In-line lunge
  • Active straight leg raise
  • Shoulder mobility

Tests That Measure Muscular Strength

  • Vertical jump has a strong correlation with maximal speed strength of the lower body. 60cm for men and 50cm for women is good. Measurements up to 120cm have been measured. Improve with plyometric training.
  • Standing long jump measures explosive strength and elasticity of the body.
  • The Margaria-Kalamen Power Test, also known as the step test, measures strength and power of the lower limbs. A 6m run followed by running up a set of stairs as fast as possible while only stepping on every third step. Each step is 17.8cm tall. The test measures the time spent ascending from the 3rd to 9th step.
    • Power = acceleration due to gravity (9.81m/s2) x mass of the athlete x the vertical height between the 3rd and ninth step / the time between third and 9th step.
  • Medicine ball throw. 2kg for women and 3kg for men. Thrown overhead to test for explosive force generation for the whole body.
  • Medicine ball side throw measures the explosive force of the core and upper body. The test also appears to be comparable to the 1RM bench press.
  • Hand grip strength test usually uses a Jamar/Saehan hand dynamometer. Elbow 90 degrees, subject seated, wrist in a neutral position, 5s, 2-3 times. Translates well into deadlift and pull-up strength.

Electromyography measures electrical activity in the muscle. EMGs are usually used to detect muscle and nerve damage.

Surface EMGs Can Measure the Following

  • The activation level and force generation of the muscle
  • Muscle fatigue
  • Activation of different muscle cell types (fast vs. slow)
  • Timing of muscle activation in relation to the movement
  • May hep to correct muscular imbalances and lateral difference

Measuring Recovery

Objective Tools for Monitoring Recovery

  • HRV
  • Resting HR
  • HR after exercise – X % in Z minutes
  • Bodyweight
    • Rapid loss may be indicative of excess fluid loss
  • Reaction time test
    • Slower times are indicative of impaired recovery speed of the nervous system
  • RESTQ-Sport questionnaire for athletes
  • Mood (POMS questionnaire)
  • Orthostatic test

Subjective Tools for Monitoring Recovery

  • Sleep quantity and quality
  • Appetite
  • Severity and duration of DOMS
  • General energy levels
  • Sensitivity of the nervous system, e.g., jump testing
  • General wellbeing

Factors Affecting Recovery

  • Amount and intensity of exercise
  • Nutritional state (quantity over quality)
  • Health and illness
  • Sleep quantity and quality
  • Rest and relaxation
  • Muscle care
  • Various medications
  • Alcohol use
  • Jet lag
  • High altitude
  • Adapting to a new climate
  • Work-related stress factors
  • Social stress factors
  • Emotional stress factors

Laboratory Tests

  • Immunological markers to check the state of the immune system
  • Cortisol and testosterone saliva (cortisol and DHEA) and urine (cortisol metabolites, ratio of cortisol to cortisone)
  • Thyroid hormones (TSH, T4V, T3V, rT3, and autoimmune antibodies if needed)
  • Creatine kinase (reflects muscle breakdown)
  • Iron balance (ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum iron, and transferrin)
  • Oxidative stress (FRAS test)
  • Energy metabolism and mitochondria function as well as general nutritional state
    • Amino acids
    • Fatty acids
    • Organic acids
    • Vitamins and minerals
    • Oxidative stress
    • Citric acid cycle
    • Methylation

Health Management Techniques


Transcendental Meditation

Psychological effects:

  • Higher stress tolerance and lower stress levels
  • Finding it easier to forgive
  • Reduced anxiety and depression
  • Improved ability to concentrate and better control of emotions
  • Improved memory
  • Increased empathy
  • Improved cognitive function and intelligence

Physiological effects:

  • Lower blood pressure and resting heart rate as well as reduced physiological stress
  • Lower levels of cortisol in the blood
  • Reduced chronic pain and the sensation of pain
  • Improved immunity
  • Reduced oxidative stress in the body
  • Increased alpha and theta waves in the brain
  • Increased brain plasticity
  • Slowing down the aging process of the brain and improving cerebral blood flow

Meditation Comparisons

Tibetan Buddhist meditation: 

  • Focus of attention: Compassion and loving kindness
  • Brain areas: Increased activity in the left frontal lobe and thalamus. Decreased activity in the parietal lobe (orientation and eyesight)
  • EEG: 40Hz frequency range (indicates concentration)

Vipassana, mindfulness, zazen:

  • Focus of attention: Observation
  • Brain areas: Increased connectivity in the right frontal lobe (attention) and sensations such as the insular cortex (taste), right parietal lobe (touch), and right temporal lobe (sound)
  • EEG: Left frontal lobe

Transcendental meditation:

  • Focus of attention: Mantra
  • Brain areas: Increased activity in the left frontal lobe and the parietal lobe. Decreased activity in the striatum and the thalamus
  • EEG: Increased uniformity of the frontal lobe alpha waves

Biohacker’s meditation room:

  • Soft lighting
  • Incense
  • Emotion diary
  • Meditation cushion
  • Brainwaves
  • Nootropics
  • Brainwave reader
  • Spike mat
  • Meditation app
  • Sound stimulation
  • Relaxing music

Breath Work

Extended exhalation activates the PNS, which is linked to increased relaxation and recovery as well as lowered heart rate and blood pressure.

Yogic Breathing (Pranayama Basics)

An excellent exercise for bringing awareness to the different parts of the breath. Used to improve stress tolerance and operational control, parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) function, and respiratory capacity, as well as to reduce blood pressure and oxygen consumption. Useful for circulating oxygen throughout the body. 

Phase 1:

  • Sit in a chair or cross-legged, upright, and relax the shoulders
  • Place one hand over the navel and slowly breathe into the belly. You should feel it expand with each breath in, deflate on the way out. Practice a few times.
  • Move hand up a few inches to cover the bottom of the rib cage. Focus the breath into this location, expand ribs with each inhale and retract with exhale. Practice 3-5 times.
  • Move hand below collarbone. Bring the inhalation up into the collarbone region.

Phase 2:

  • Connect all these motions into one breath, inhale into stomach, lower rib cage, and chest.
  • Exhale in the opposite direction.
  • Continue for a dozen rounds.

Extra Phase:

  • Yoga breathing with abdominal tension: Hand on naval, try to inhale into the belly without moving the hand. This engages the abdomen.
  • Training the diaphragm: Yoga breathing with forced belly exhales.

Pranayama also stimulates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), so one must be careful if you have high blood pressure, weak heart, epilepsy, or reduced liver function. The exercises help to cleanse the blood, develop the respiratory and circulatory systems, and strengthen the diaphragm. They also cleanse the nose and sinuses and are therefore useful for preventing colds and other illnesses.

Bellows Breath/Breath of Fire (Bhastrika)

The movements of the diaphragm are used to breathe in and out through the nose (10-100 times), then drawing in a full inhalation, and holding the breath for as long as possible. Followed by an exhalation through the mouth, as slow as possible. Increases oxygen saturation in the blood and improves the function of the respiratory system (particularly the diaphragm). Used to invigorate the body and the SNS. Avoid this one if you are in a stressed-out state.

10s version for stress relief:

  • Bring your hands in front of your chest and push palms together.
  • Breathe vigorously in and out through the mouth for 10s utilizing your diaphragm.
  • Visualize stress leaving your body.
  • Take a deep breath in and exhale completely after a 10s breath of fire.
  • Eventually you should be able to achieve 60 breaths per minute. To make it more forceful, you can use your arms and hands. Stretching the arms above the head, move them down quickly while bending elbows on the exhalation, and clenching fists. During the inhale, bring them up again. A powerful hyperventilation exercise that brings CO2 levels down (prickly and dizzy feeling).

The Relaxing Breath (Visama Vrtti)/4-7-8 Breathing (Dr. Andrew Weil)

Calms the nervous system to facilitate sleep, alleviate stress, and remove CO2.

Follow these steps:

  • Take a breath in.
  • Exhale through your mouth with a whoosh sound.
  • Close the mouth and inhale quietly through your nose to a mental count of 4.
  • Hold for 7.
  • Exhale completely through the mouth, with whoosh, to the count of 8.
  • Repeat for at least 4 breaths.

Alternate Nostril Breathing (Nadi Shodhana)

Improves the lung function and lowers the heart rate, blood pressure, and sympathetic stress. As well as improving heart rate variability (HRV) and balancing the function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) by boosting the activity of the vagus nerve. Use before meetings, events, or sleep. Alternate nostril breathing is the “purification of channels” and cleans energy channels (nadis). Left nostril breathing for calming (parasympathetic nervous system) and right for excitement (sympathetic nervous system). 

  • (Optional) Hand positioning: Place thumb of your right hand over your right nostril and the ring finger of that same hand on the left nostril. The forefinger and middle finger should rest between the eyebrows.
  • Close the right nostril with the thumb and inhale through the left nostril very slowly.
  • At the top of the breath, pause briefly, holding both nostrils closed, then lift the thumb to exhale through the right nostril.
  • At the natural conclusion of the exhale, hold both nostrils closed for a moment, then inhale through the right nostril.
  • Continue alternating breaths through the nostrils for 5-10 cycles.

Victorious Breath (Ujjayi)

Victorious Breath refers to conquering restlessness and stress. Helps to energize you if you’re tired and calm you down if you’re feeling overwhelmed. 

  • Inhale through the nose calmly and slowly, listening to the hum of your breathing. Fill your lungs completely.
  • Exhale through the nose very calmly, listening to the hum of your breathing. If you wish, you can contract the epiglottis muscle slightly to increase the hum of the breathing even calmer, deeper and longer.
  • The longer and calmer your breaths are the better. However, do not try too hard, you should not get winded.
  • If you get winded, stop the exercise. Next time lighten the exercise.
  • Start with 10 cycles. You may increase the number of cycles as you become more advanced.


  • Sit comfortably. With your lips closed, breathe in deeply through your nose.
  • Then, exhale with an open mouth, constricting your breath slightly, and make a “hah” sound. This should similar to hissing.
  • Repeat 5-10 times.

Mental Health/Emotion Regulation

Neurotransmitter Balance

The balance between the main neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, GABA, and acetylcholine) can be subjectively assessed using the indicative personality test developed by Eric R. Braverman. The levels of neurotransmitters (noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin) can be measured by testing for the metabolic byproducts in blood or urine.

Amino acids as neurotransmitters


  • Function: Inhibitory, calming
  • Highest concentration: Seaweed, gelatin, egg, turkey, beef

Aspartic acid:

  • Function: Stimulatory
  • Highest concentration: Soy protein isolate, halibut, egg white, asparagus


  • Function: Inhibitory, calming
  • Highest concentration: Fermented foods, tea, tomato, mackerel

Glutamic acid:

  • Function: Stimulatory
  • Highest concentration: Soy protein isolate, soy sauce, cottage cheese, flaxseed


  • Function: Inhibitory, calming
  • Highest concentration: Gelatin, pork, beef, offal


  • Function: Inhibitory, calming
  • Highest concentration: Mackerel, chicken liver, crayfish, fish, lamb


A monoamine neurotransmitter of the brain and intestine (90% for intestinal movements). Biochemically derived from tryptophan. It has several physiological effects on mood, appetite, sleep, memory, and learning. Tryptophan->5-HTP->Serotonin

Serotonin deficiency problems include anxiety, depression, OCD. Intestinal problems include constipation and slow movements.

Serotonin Boosters

  • Calcium: 500-1000mg
  • Fish oil: 500-2000mg
  • 5-HTP: 100-400mg
  • Magnesium: 200-600mg
  • Melatonin (at night): 0.1-2mg
  • Passionflower: 200-1000mg
  • Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6): 5-50mg
  • SAM-e: 50-200mg
  • St John’s wort: 200-600mg
  • Tryptophan: 500-2000mg
  • Zinc: 15-45mg
  • Banana
  • Kiwifruit
  • Plum
  • Papaya
  • Date
  • Tomato
  • Turkey and chicken
  • Various types of fish
  • Eggs
  • Cheese
  • Cacao
  • Almond
  • Sesame seeds


Catecholamine and phenethylamine families. Dopamine is biochemically synthesized from tyrosine and dopa. The brain contains several different dopamine systems, most of which involve rewarding and motivating behavior patterns. Dopamine boosting drugs and stimulants such as cocaine, amphetamine, alcohol, and nicotine are addictive. Other dopamine systems involve motor control and hormone secretion. Phenylalanine->Tyrosine->Dopa->Dopamine->Noradrenaline->Adrenaline

Dysregulation is part of illnesses like Parkinson’s, schizophrenia, ADHD, and restless legs syndrome. Dopamine affects the digestive system, blood vessels, and immune system. Excessively low and high amounts both cause memory-impairing effects. Typical problems caused by dopamine deficiency are mood swings, depression, social withdrawal, poor observation skills, chronic fatigue, and low levels of physical energy.

Dopamine Boosters

  • Phenylalanine: 500-2000mg
  • Tyrosine: 500-2000mg
  • Methionine: 250-1000mg
  • Rhodiola rosea: 50-200mg
  • Pyridoxine: 5-50mg
  • B-complex: 25-100mg
  • Phosphatidylserine: 50-200mg
  • Maidenhair tree (Ginkgo Biloba): 50-100mg
  • Avocado
  • Banana
  • Turkey and chicken
  • Cottage cheese and ricotta cheese
  • Eggs
  • Pork
  • Duck
  • Walnut
  • Almond
  • Mucuna pruriens
  • Sesame seeds
  • Pumpkin seeds


An ester of acetate and choline. It activates the muscles and triggers muscle contractions via nicotinic receptors. It acts as a brain plasticity and memory neurotransmitter via muscarinic receptors in the CNS. Alzheimer’s disease involves severe cholinergic (acetylcholinergic-producing) disorders. Has crucial role in the reception of various external stimuli as well as observation skills. Acetate+Choline->Acetylcholine

It affects the transmission of sensory information from the thalamus to certain parts of the cortex. Acetylcholine regulates brain speed and the frequency of electrical signals, insufficient acetylcholine levels may cause memory problems, slowness of movement, mood swings, learning difficulties, and difficulties in abstract thinking.

Acetylcholine Boosters

  • Choline: 100-500mg
  • Phosphatidylcholine: 500-2000mg
  • Phosphatidylserine: 50-200mg
  • Acetyl-L-carnitine: 250-1000mg
  • DHA (docosahexaenoic acid): 200-1000mg
  • Thiamine (vitamin B1): 25-100mg
  • Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5): 25-100mg
  • Methylcobalamin (vitamin B12): 100-500mg
  • Taurine: 250-1000mg
  • Maidenhair tree (Ginkgo Biloba): 50-100mg
  • Korean Ginseng: 100-500mg
  • Broccoli
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Cucumber
  • Lettuce
  • Zucchini
  • Eggs
  • Cow’s liver and lamb’s liver
  • Beef
  • Pork
  • Yoghurt
  • Shrimp
  • Salmon and other oily fish
  • Pine nuts
  • Almond
  • Hazelnut
  • Macadamia nut


Gamma-aminobutyric acid is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the nervous system. It affects the frequency of calming theta brain waves. It does not pass through the BBB. It is synthesized in the brain from glutamic acid with the help of B6 (pyridoxal-5-phosphate). Conversely, GABA breaks down into glutamate (stimulatory neurotransmitter). Glutamic acid->Glutamate->

Excessive GABA can cause memory loss, restlessness, convulsions, hallucinations, and impaired cognitive functions.

GABAa receptors are affected by diazepam. Alcohol affects GABAb receptors as well as the experience of pain. Individuals suffering from GABA deficiency often experience problems with stress tolerance, anxiety, depression, feelings of guilt as well as OCD.

GABA Boosters

  • Inositol: 500-2000mg
  • GABA: 100-1000mg
  • Glutamic acid: 250-1000mg
  • Melatonin (at night): 0.1-2mg
  • Thiamine (vitamin B1): 200-600mg
  • Niacinamide (vitamin B3): 25-500mg
  • Pyridoxine: 5-50mg
  • Valerian: 100-500mg
  • Passionflower: 200-1000mg
  • Banana
  • Broccoli
  • Oranges and other citrus fruits
  • Spinach
  • Cow’s liver
  • Mackerel
  • Halibut
  • Almond
  • Walnut
  • Dark rice and rice bran
  • Oat

Recording Emotions

  • Emotion diary: A functional way to identify and analyze one’s own emotions. An emotion diary and creative writing improve emotional and physical health, reducing stress and depressive thoughts. It can also be used as a gratitude journal.
  • Recognizing facial expressions
  • HRV training
  • Galvanic skin response sensor: lie detectors are based on these. The sensor detects changes in electrical conductivity caused by changes in the circulation of the skin.

Tools For Brain Optimization

Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy

PMF therapy works by training your brain to produce particular electrical wavelengths (entrainment). You can use a device like a SomniResonance SR1 to enter a delta-wavelength prior to sleep. PMF therapy has been shown to improve neuroplasticity and communication between other brain regions.

The earth produces Schumann resonances, a set of low electromagnetic frequencies. The most well-known is the 7.83Hz frequency, which is responsible for the benefits of grounding and can be used to mitigate the effects of harmful EMFs.

Mitochondrial respiration is higher in cells exposed to PEMF, meaning they produce energy faster. PEMF effects are greater when you are hungry and exhausted (ADP levels low and nutrients not readily available). PEMF therapy also affects the immune system. Macrophages exposed to PEMF demonstrated a 56.2% increase in phagocytosis. Cells continuously exposed to 5Hz exhibited significant effects on the downregulation of TNF-alpha and NFkB and also showed a trend in the downregulation of A20.

When a cell’s voltage is low, oxygen departs from the cell, which lowers ATP production. PEMF increases circulation, thus providing more oxygen. PEMF also increases cell voltage, which raises pH and enables more oxygen to be dissolved within the cell for respiration. By using PEMF to create a more oxygenated environment, you can likely lower your cancer risk by increasing the alkalinity. 

Methods You Can Use

  • Z-score training
  • LENS (low energy neurofeedback system)
  • Low-frequency training
  • Loretta training
  • pROSHI
  • NeurOptimal training
  • CES (cranial electrotherapy stimulation)


A noninvasive form of CNS biofeedback. It involves placing electrodes on the scalp and works by encouraging certain brain regions to raise or lower the amplitude and ratios of brain waves. Requires a proper trained neurofeedback practitioner. Neurofeedback has been shown to improve concentration, alleviate stress, treat various illnesses such as ADHD, depression, anxiety, chronic pain, and epilepsy.


It can regulate or even reset your body’s circadian rhythm, but it can also shut down inflammation in your brain and produce significant amounts of nitric oxide in neural tissue, boost oxygenation, and enhance memory function and cognition with a form of light called near-infrared light. Ben Greenfield considers the Vielight Neuro Gamma to be one of the best. It uses transcranial intranasal light exposure and includes a small light producing headset that you place over your skull and a small probe that you insert into your nostril. You don’t want to overuse it and overstimulate the mitochondria. Once every 48 hours. Literature says low-to-mid-800nm to mid-600nm range is the most beneficial.

Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation

Electrically stimulating the trigeminal nerve suppresses migraines. ECT causes your body to release large amounts of dopamine and serotonin, resulting in a deep relaxation. Studies were published in the 1970s showing a small dose of alternating current electrotherapy for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Ben has one called Circadia, which relaxes and calms Ben’s mind when he is anxious or jittery.

Brain Wave Entrainment

Brain wave entrainment involves using external stimuli to synchronize your brain’s electrical activity. It is based on the fact that your brain tends to change its dominant electrical frequency to that of whatever dominant external stimulus it is exposed to. Brain wave entrainment apps use audio signals like binaural beats, and monoaural tones are ideally used with headphones so that both ears receive the signal simultaneously. One of the more popular apps is Holosync, which entrains your brain into a delta brain wave state to reduce stress. + SleepStream. Dreem, Sleep Shepherd, and Philips SmartSleep. Unfortunately, it appears a lot of these produce dirty electricity.

N-Back Training

An app or software that involves n-back training (standard psychology cognitive test), which increases in difficulty, requiring recall of numbers and letters. A few weeks of training can increase executive function and mental discipline, concentration while ignoring all else, mentally compartmentalizing activities, direct attention with extreme specificity, and apply all creative activity toward one task until it’s completed. N-back induces the opposite of ADD symptoms.

Ben Greenfield’s Suggested Brain Training Program

Monday through Friday:

  • PEMF device in alpha brain wave mode in your office or home workstation. To boost the focus-enhancing effects, pipe focus tracks through your speakers or headphones. Duck away for a quick nap or recharge session using an audiovisual entrainment device like the DAVID Delight or a CES device like the Circadia, or simply grab the same PEMF device from your desk and switch it into a more relaxing delta brain wave mode.

Monday, Wednesday, Friday:

  • Do a round of photobiomodulation using a device like Vielight.

Every night:

  • Use SleepStream,, or both to lull you into a relaxing delta brain waves for a night of sleep. To boost it, use a PEMF device in delta or theta mode.


  • Do a stint of neurofeedback training, such as three months of Peak Brain Institute training at home or an immersive week in a program like Biocybernaut or 40 Years of Zen.

Saturday or Sunday:

  • Play a round of N-back training. Keep an N-back app handy so you can toy around with it when waiting for an Uber or to board a flight.

Different Forms of Therapy


Shown to be useful at treating illnesses like IBS (, depression, migraines, and possibly fibromyalgia. is useful for pain relief, stress, and sleep. 

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) 

Problem focused and action oriented. Suited for treatment of anxiety or depression. 

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) 

Facilitates changing harmful patterns of behavior by identifying the emotions and thoughts that trigger these patterns.

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) 

Aims at clearing the obstacles in thinking that sustain the problem. Suited for distorted or irrational beliefs. 

Measuring Mind Function

Meditation usually shows alpha waves of 10Hz (8-15Hz). A beta rhythm is typical when a person is awake with a high level of brain activity (16-31Hz). Slower theta waves (4-7Hz) and delta rhythms (0.5-3.5Hz) can be seen when the individual is in a meditative state or in various phases of sleep, particularly during deep sleep (delta).

Qualitative EEGs can be used in encephalopathies, delirium, learning disabilities attention disorders, mood disorders, and dementia. Especially ADHD (observing theta/beta ratio). Nowadays it can be combined with neurofeedback training to improve attention, mood, focus, self-regulation, and self-control, as well as sleep, energy production, stress, anxiety, and so on.


Biohacker’s Manifesto:

1. Your work should be genuinely enjoyable and meaningful to you.

2. Aim for self-directed freedom at work, for example regarding work hours.

3. Seek a positive and supportive atmosphere and a pleasant work environment.

4. Don’t live to work, work to enrich your life.

5. Quality over quantity. Impact over efficiency.

6. Allow yourself time to rest and recover.

7. Take regular breaks and use them to get up and move.

8. One half of your working day should be about producing an output while the other half should be spent on input – making connections and trying new things.

9. Research and select the best tools for repetitive tasks.

10. Pay attention to posture, ergonomics and working positions.

Biohacker’s Office:

  • Green wall
  • Saddle chair
  • Phone dock
  • Water bottle
  • Adjustable hue changing lighting
  • Monitors at eye level
  • Wrist support
  • Adjustable height desk
  • Standing mat
  • Massage ball
  • Ergonomic mouse
  • Natural light
  • Indoor plants
  • Noise canceling headphones
  • Vibration plate

Methods for Developing Working Memory

  • Meditation
  • Regular physical activity
  • HIIT
  • Barefoot running
  • Yoga
  • Tonal (harmonious) music – fast classical in a major key activates working memory and boosts processing speed particularly in the elderly (Vivaldi effect).
  • tDCS
  • Dual N-Back training
  • Creatine monohydrate
  • Caffeine and theanine
  • Panax ginseng and Bacopa monnieri
  • Nicotine
  • L-tyrosine
  • Turmeric and curcumin
  • Phosphatidlyserine

Work Ergonomics and Efficiency Methods

Forward head posture may cause disorders of the CNS, cause pressure in the carotid arteries, and thus impair brain circulation.

Implement These Changes to Optimize Cell Phone Ergonomics:

  • Use voice control
  • Avoid using for a long period of time
  • Avoid browsing the internet and reading emails on the phone
  • Straighten your neck, twist your thumbs, relax your shoulders, twist thumbs upwards, and breathe deeply
  • Pay attention to your posture. Prop your elbows against your body and lift the phone to eye level

When we sit, we block off a large number of blood vessels and nerves in the thighs, buttocks, pelvis, and genital areas. Men tend to unconsciously tilt their pelvis back while sitting, to avoid squashing genital nerves. The result is a lumbar position that may cause deterioration of the lumbar spine. Women who cross their legs will also cut off blood vessels and nerves, increasing hypertension.

To Prevent Work Inactivity

  • Keep a sitting diary or wear an activity tracker
  • Do more work standing up and actively vary your working positions
  • Use an app that reminds you to take breaks
  • Incorporate active movement in your breaks
  • Use a saddle chair
  • Move while on the phone and schedule walking meetings

Males should not wear tight pants. It keeps testicles too close to your warm body and decreases total sperm count and quality.

Stand properly by pointing your toes straight, plant the entire foot firmly on the ground, tighten your buttocks slightly, activate your abdominals, and practice often.

Take breaks and eliminate distractions.

Try These Cognitive Ergonomic Tools

  • Setting the day’s main goals in the morning (1-3 goals)
  • Not-to-do lists
  • Splitting a large project into smaller tasks
  • Automating and outsourcing repetitive tasks
  • Creating a recurring task list (to establish routines and habits)
  • Using an interval timer with preset phases for routines (Pomodoro)
  • Taking regular breaks and microbreaks
  • Tidying the work station before and after working
  • Writing down in the evening the tasks that preoccupy the mind

The Law of Concentration

1 x 1 = 1 vs. 0.5 x 0.5 = 0.25

Multitasking may reduce productivity by up to 40%. Typically, people can only concentrate on one thing for about 10-25 minutes. While in the flow zone, this may be several minutes.

For Greater Concentration

  • Plan task completion based on time (scheduling phone calls and emails at a specific time and not throughout the day)
  • Plan tasks based on context (at the work station, on the go, on the phone, while commuting, etc.)
  • Specify a different function for each device (e.g., work on the computer, entertainment on the tablet, and social on the phone)
  • Schedule tasks that require concentration
  • Block the use of distracting applications when you intend to concentrate

To Minimize External Factors

  • Disable email and instant messaging
  • Block the use of social media applications
  • Disconnect the internet when tasks do not require it
  • Minimize excess noise, e.g., by using noise canceling headphones
  • Optimize air temperature, oxygen level, purity, and humidity
  • Use optimal, indirect full-spectrum light that is similar to daylight
  • Minimize unnecessary human contact that impairs your ability to work

Optimal Air Quality

  • CO2 content: < 625ppm
  • Humidity: 35-65%
  • Temperature: 19C
  • Volatile organic compounds content: < 150ppb
  • Particle content: < 12.5 microgram/m3

Actions for Improving Indoor Air Quality

  • Wipe off dust on a regular basis
  • Refrain from smoking indoors
  • An induction cooktop is preferable to gas or wood
  • Swap detergents for the safest alternatives, such as vinegar
  • Favor unscented detergents and personal hygiene products
  • If necessary, have the indoor air quality analyzed
  • Ventilate your home frequently (20 minutes per day)
  • Purchase an air purifier
  • Purchase an air freshener that increases air humidity
  • Use ozone treatments to remove unpleasant odors
  • Purchase an ionizer that spreads ions into the air, trapping negatively charged particles
  • Purchase plants that purify indoor air. The following plants are recommended by NASA:
    • Snake plant
    • Barberton daisy
    • Chrysanthemums
    • Peace lily
  • Renovate your home to incorporate breathable and natural building materials

Calming the Mind


  • Classical
  • Calming ambient sounds
  • Nature sounds
  • Solfeggio frequencies
  • Binaural beats and isochronic tunes

Scents and aromatherapy:

  • Lavendar, rosemary, lemon, jasmine, cedarwood, peppermint, chamomile
  • Frankincense incense

Spike mat

  • Boosts oxytocin and endorphins (improves mood)

Yoga, massage, and stretching

  • Boosts circulation

Minimize sensory stimuli

  • Isolation tank
  • Silence exercises
  • Deep breathing

Measuring the Work Environment

Measurable Factors Related to Wellbeing and Optimizing Work Efficiency

  • Sitting. standing, walking, and running time (time and distance)
  • Posture (hours per day maintaining good posture)
  • Heart rate and blood pressure throughout the day (heart rate, systolic and diastolic pressure)
  • Blood sugar (mmol/L and mg/dL)
  • Indoor air quality (VOC, fine particles, CO2, humidity)
  • Lighting (lumens)
  • Noise (decibels)
  • Temperature (Celsius or Fahrenheit)
  • Mood
  • Innervation (e.g., reaction time)
  • Tests measuring cognitive performance
  • Breaks (amount of rest, exercise)
  • Time spent using a computer (efficient working, studying, interaction, wasted time)
  • Time spent on the phone (minutes per day)
  • Stress and recovery – heart rate variability (HRV)
  • Sleep quality (deep sleep, REM sleep, total hours slept, wakeups)

Factors Affecting HRV

HRV increases when the body is in recovery or the individual is relaxing. Conversely, it decreases when the body is under strain.

  • Breathing
  • The reactions and functional state of the autonomic nervous systems
  • Stress reaction
  • Hormonal reactions
  • Relaxation
  • Metabolic processes
  • Physical activity (exercise and recovery)
  • Movements and changes in posture
  • Thinking and emotional reactions (general psychological stress)
  • Alcohol use and nutrition


Packing list

  • Waterproof backpack or shoulder bag
  • Vacuum or compression bags to minimize space required for clothes
  • 1 liter zip-lock bag for liquids
  • Transparent 30-100ml containers and bottles for liquid cosmetics, dietary supplements and food
  • A cable lock to deter bag theft in public spaces, transportation, hotel, etc.
  • An RFID-blocking wallet for cards and passport
  • Ballpoint pen
  • Chopsticks or spork
  • Adapters for various electric plugs and cables (USB and phone chargers) in a protective pouch
  • Antibacterial and wrinkle resistant underwear and t-shirts x 2
  • Second pair of trousers if the trip is longer than a week
  • Sunglasses or blue light blocking glasses
  • Lightweight sneakers
  • Shorts that double as swimwear
  • Smartphone and/or tablet to replace a camera, travel guides, books, map, etc.
  • Sleeping mask and earplugs or noise canceling headphones
  • Cable ties, elastic bands, etc. to tie cables together
  • Black electrical tape to cover LEDs in the hotel room
  • Lightweight rain poncho or small umbrella
  • Lightweight thermos for coffee, tea, and water
  • Lightweight day bag
  • Roll clothes to minimize wrinkling, favor dark clothes, wear a long-sleeve shirt, jacket, and hat

Airport Guide

  • Always check in online the day before
  • Do not check bags to avoid stress and standing in queues
  • Place jewelry and belt in your bag in anticipation of security checks
  • Acquire an elite-level frequent flyer card – faster checks and better rest in the business lounge
  • Only fill your water after the check
  • Secure the network connection on all your devices using a VPN
  • When the screen says to go to your gate, the actual boarding time is still several minutes away. Instead of standing in-line, sit down and do something useful
  • Pack your own snacks to avoid low-quality foods
  • Choose a special meal – you will be served first and often the food is fresher
  • Go to the toilet before boarding
  • Wait to exchange currency at your destination (exchange rate in-town is usually better)
  • Purchase a roaming or local SIM card for your phone

Minimize Radiation Exposure

  • Antioxidants before flying: glutathione, astaxanthin, selenium, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10, NAC, vitamin C, and alpha lipoic acid
  • Omega-3 (particularly DHA) before flying reduces UVB radiation and reduced oxidative damage in the brain
  • Chlorella (500mg/kg) and/or spirulina (60mg/kg) before flying may provide protection from gamma radiation
  • Regular consumption of potassium iodide protects the thyroid from radioactive iodide
  • Charcoal and zeolite to remove radioactive toxins
  • Avoid flying between 8am and 5pm. Radiation exposure is lower when the sun is not visible
  • Ask for a pat-down instead of a radioactive scan

Jet Lag East to West

Easier to extend the internal clock than shorten it. Stay awake and go to bed immediately upon arrival at the destination late at night.

West to East

Start adjusting your sleeping patterns before departure by going to bed a few hours earlier than normal. Makes it easier to fall asleep on the plane. Advisable to sleep on the plane and get immediate sunlight exposure and exercise to adjust.


  • Alcohol
  • Sleeping pills
  • Caffeine and chocolate for 5-8 hours before bedtime
  • Poorly timed sunlight (during evening or night time in the destination zone)


  • Mineral rich hydration (try soaked chia seeds or cucumber)
  • Fasting or IF. Do this for approx. a week before departure to give your body time to adjust to fasting.
  • If you are not sleeping on the flight, get up and move to boost lymphatic and blood circulation
  • Wear compression socks or trousers to improve circulation and reduce swelling
  • Exercise in the sun at the destination if you arrive in the morning or afternoon. Bodyweight and/or walking is recommended
  • Grounding immediately upon arrival. Barefoot in the grass, sand, or swimming. This helps the body to recover from stress caused by the flight (may reduce inflammation, boost circulation, and reduce stress).
  • 50mg pycnogenol 3 times daily for a total of seven days. Start 2 days before flying.
  • Take melatonin at the appropriate time (when it is evening at the destination) – the dose depends on the genotype of the MTNR1B gene which affects melatonin metabolism. If you are of the GG genotype, take just 10% of the normal dose (e.g., 0.3mg vs. 3mg). Do not eat anything for 8 hours after taking melatonin.
  • Do not go to sleep immediately upon arrival (unless it is evening or night-time). Try to stay awake until night-time. If you must sleep, take a short 20-40min nap.

Hotel Room Optimization

  • Ensure the room is smoke free
  • When checking in, ask about the possibility of a late checkout and the cost of an upgrade to a better room
  • Ask for the hygiene products that you don’t carry with you
  • Place the “do not disturb” sign on the door to avoid housekeeping or uninvited visitors. Never use the “please service my room” as it signals to burglars that you’re not in
  • The light switch card reader usually takes any card, so you can keep the electricity on at all times
  • Air the room immediately
  • Switch air conditioning on. Set the temperature at a suitably cool level to promote a lowered body temperature before bedtime
  • Consider carrying a travel-sized ionizer and/or air humidifier
  • Switch off all LED lights, particularly blue ones or cover them with tape
  • Take the hotel room telephone off the hook so that you are not woken up
  • Draw the window curtains to darken the room completely.
  • Remove all brochures and flyers from view
  • Check the room and the toilet for signs of mold. Change rooms if you find it.
  • Check the mattress for bugs
  • Bring your own tea/coffee. Use the room kettle

Nootropics and Smart Drugs

A nootropic is any substance that enhances memory, mood, concentration, or any other aspect of cognitive function, but must also be neuroprotective and nontoxic, and derived from natural, non-synthetic sources. Smart drugs don’t necessarily have to be neuroprotective and nontoxic so they can be much riskier.


Ayurvedic Nootropics

Indian Aryurvedic medicine includes a group of nootropic plants called medhya rasayana, the four primary plants of which are mandukaparni, yashtimadhu, guduchi, and shankhpushpi.

  • Brahmi (bacopa, water hyssop, thyme-leaved gratiola, herb of grace, and Indian pennywort) is named after Lord Brahmi, the creator god and originator of Ayurveda, and has been used for centuries to treat pain and inflammation to epilepsy and memory dysfunction. Research suggests it promotes antioxidant activity and protects neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, and corpus striatum against cytotoxicity and DNA damage associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). 300-450mg per day.
  • Ashwagandha (winter cherry), can improve cognitive development, memory, and intelligence and reduce effects of diseases like PD, Huntington’s, and AD. 2g three times a day.
  • Aloeweed (shankhpushpi) is used to improve memory and intellect, as well as hypertension, epilepsy, and diabetes. 20-40g per day.
  • Celastrus paniculatus is taken in seed form, starting with 10 seeds and working up to 20. Malkangni oil is derived from the seeds. It can be used to enhance memory and intellectual capacity, improve dream recall, and induce lucid dreams.

Traditional Chinese Nootropics

  • Ginkgo is derived from the Chinese maidenhair tree. It can stimulate the growth of new neurons. The ginkgo flavonoids are potent antioxidants that have been shown to reduce Alzheimer’s in mice as well as stabilize and improve cognitive performance. 120-240mg taken 1-4 hours before a cognitively demanding task. To reduce age-related cognitive decline, 40-120mg three times daily.
  • Danggui-shaoyao-san (DSS) can induce angiogenesis and neurogenesis, which makes it a potential treatment in ischemic stroke therapy. Research suggests the DSS also improves free-radical-mediated neurological diseases such as AD and PD, exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and reduces cell death in the hippocampus. Promoting better moods, enhanced memory, and a more balanced ANS.


The main component of vanilla (also in ginger, allspice, capsaicin, and cloves), enhances cognition by boosting dopamine; BDNF; and a similar neuronal support factor, glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GLNF). Vanillin also has potent pain-killing and mood-supporting effects, and traditionally used as a treatment for inflammation, anxiety, and depression. Buy organic vanilla bean powder and mix it in your drinks or purchase organic vanilla beans (avoid the tonka variety). Slice the beans in half and soak them in vodka for 4-6 weeks to make a tincture.


It can prevent memory deficits in those with Alzheimer’s. The phytochemical content of coffee gives it potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that complement caffeine’s neuroprotective effects. 60-100mg. Some people are slow metabolizers of caffeine (COMT gene carriers) because of reduced turnover rates of a catecholamine class of neurotransmitters (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine).

  • Enhances long-term memory
  • Prevents dementia
  • When consumed together with theanine, it comprehensively enhances cognitive functions (100mg caffeine + 200mg theanine)


Oral consumption improves memory consolidation during learning by increasing the density and efficiency of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the cholinergic system. Nicotine is addictive because it binds to nAChRs, which trigger the release of feel-good neurotransmitters like dopamine and glutamate, which your body reacts to by creating more receptors. High doses can inhibit performance. Microdosed nicotine decreased memory impairments and mood-related disturbances like anxiety and depression in an AD pilot study. Nicotine can act as an antioxidant in the brain. Nicotine affects peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1 alpha), the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Helping to create more mitochondria in a similar fashion to exercise. Don’t smoke or vape. 1-2mg occasional use.


Shown to increase focus, creativity, and mood and reduce general anxiety, social anxiety, chronic pain, stress, ADHD, insomnia, headaches, and inflammation. Needs to be blended with compounds such as curcuminoids or rendered more bioavailable for oral absorption. An effective dose begins at 10mg.

Traditional Nootropics

  • Maca root: sexual function, memory, and learning as well as to reduce the effects of osteoporosis. 1500-3000mg.
  • Yerba mate: improve cholesterol levels, protect the liver, and stimulate greater CNS activity. 990ml-1.5L of tea per day.
  • Green tea: The polyphenols in green tea have prevented neurotoxin-induced cell injury in mice. May delay memory loss. 400-500mg of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the primary component of green tea.
  • Black ant extract: amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. In addition to high amounts of ATP, it also acts to modulate the immune system, build stress resilience, and provide high amounts of ecdysterone, a growth hormone in insects that can have an anabolic effect. High in zinc, which is used in muscular contractions, cellular growth and division, vision, the immune system, and libido. 1/2-1tsp for 4–5-hour energy boost.
  • Lion’s mane: Rich in beta-glucan polysaccharides, responsible for the neuroprotective and cognition-enhancing properties. Increases nerve growth factor levels, which cause enhanced neuronal growth, regeneration, and synaptic plasticity. Also improves myelination, resulting in enhanced neuronal communication and nerve regeneration, improve memory, decrease neuronal excitability and excitotoxicity, protects neurons form inflammatory damage, and even reduce anxiety and stress. 750mg – 5g per day.

Alpha lipoic acid (ALA)

  • Protects the brain and mitochondria from damage

CDP-Choline (Citicoline)

  • Prevents memory deterioration and enhances memory and learning
  • Improves attentional performance


  • Enhances memory and prevents memory deterioration
  • In children, it alleviates ADHD symptoms and enhances short-term memory
  • Curbs the production of cortisol under strain and speeds up recovery from physical strain


  • Neuroprotective, protects the brain against oxidative stress
  • Tests conducted on rats found it to boost the production of GABA in the brain
  • May slow down the aging of the brain


  • Enhances cognitive performance

Creatine Monohydrate

  • Enhances general brain performance
  • May improve short-term memory and intelligence of stressed individuals and/or healthy individuals with the biggest potential of aging

Gotu kola

  • Neuroprotective
  • May reduce anxiety and reactions to loud noises


  • Imitates calorie restrictions in the diet which in turn has an anti-aging effect
  • Neuroprotective, i.e. protects the brain against damage

Synthetic Nootropics

Racetams act on the CNS receptors, neurotransmitters, the AMPA receptors responsible for fast synaptic transmission, and muscarinic receptors.

  • Piracetam directly enhances learning, memory, and attention, and it can restore cognitive performance in patients who have suffered cranial trauma, inflammation, strokes, and ischemic complications following a bypass surgery. It can also improve symptoms of delirium and reduce depression and anxiety. 1200-4800mg divided into 3 smaller doses throughout the day.
  • Aniracetam has been shown to protect cells from the effects of glutamate excitotoxicity. Can protect from inflammation from herbicides, pesticides, and rancid oils. 400mg dose to 2 doses of 500-750mg per day, taken with meals.
  • Noopept: Can improve memory and attention and reduce depression and anxiety. Acts similarly to racetams to improve overall brain function. Range from 10-30mg per day.
  • Phenylethylamine: Mood and increase attention and concentration. Heightens feelings of arousal, excitement, and euphoria. 300-1000mg per day.
  • Uridine monophosphate: Learning, memory, and overall cognitive function. 500-1000mg per day.
  • Phosphatidylserine: Reduce stress, cortisol, and physical fatigue; improve ADHD and forgetfulness; and increase mental processing and memory. 100mg three times daily. No more or else insomnia.
  • Hordenine HCl: Burn fat and improve metabolism, and increase energy, alertness, and concentration. 30mg two-three times daily.
  • Vinpocetine: Protects the brain against toxins, increases blood flow to the brain, lowers inflammation, reduces fatigue, and increases attention, memory, and alertness. 15-60mg per day, split up into separate doses and taken three times.
  • Methylene blue: Potent mitochondrial booster and cognitive enhancer. Used to treat AD, Huntington’s, PD, and dementia, to prevent amyloid plaque buildup in the brain, and to restore mitochondrial function. 1-4mg per kg of body weight. More is not better since excess can lead to high levels of free radicals, oxidation, and inflammation. 80micrograms – 1-2 times per week.

Smart Drugs

Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

Treated narcolepsy and ADHD. It works by inhibiting the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine, which causes a flood of both in your synapses and amplifies signals sent between neurons. Side effects include insomnia, stomachache, headache, and anorexia. Overdoses can lead to agitation, hallucinations, psychosis, lethargy, seizures, tachycardia, dysrhythmia, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Very dangerous for developing brains. The prefrontal cortex continues to develop into the twenties and requires natural rising and falling levels of dopamine for rational thought and executive control to develop.

Modafinil (Provigil)

Reduces fatigue and sleepiness. Its exact mechanism of action is not fully known, but it works by inhibiting dopamine reuptake, which keeps levels high. Research suggests that this stimulates the hippocampus to release more of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, leading to improved cognitive performance and memory. Similar risks to Ritalin. It is safer than other stimulants but any drug that alters dopamine levels should not be used often. Take choline supplements or get it from food to realign lowered acetylcholine levels and prevent irritability.

Amphetamines (Adderall)

Targets dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine (monoamines). Amphetamines block their uptake by clogging monoamine transporters. Can cause anorexia, weight loss, and insomnia.

Ampakines (Alzheimer’s drugs)

Derived from aniracetam, but chemically altered to make them act like a smart drug. Their function is to bind to glutamate receptors, preventing excitotoxicity when too much glutamate is available. Excitotoxicity seems to play a part in cellular death and neurodegenerative conditions like schizophrenia, delirium, and dementia. Too much ampakines can actually cause glutamate excitotoxicity.

L-Deprenyl (Selegiline)

Treats newly diagnosed Parkinson’s disease (PD). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors like L-deprenyl are considered last-resort antidepressants, and work by inhibiting the action of monoamine neurotransmitters. Some research shows it may have neuron-stimulating and neuroprotective effects in models of cerebral ischemia and stroke. Excess may cause twitching and controllable repetitive spasms in the tongue, lips, face, arms, and legs, blurred vision, chest pain, difficulty breathing, dizziness, irregular heartbeat, and irritability. Better to have natural dopamine-modulating nootropics including Mucuna pruriens, tryptophan, coffee, and nicotine. 

How to Enhance the Effects of Nootropics and Smart Drugs

Choline donors

Essential for brain development, detoxification, metabolism, muscle movement, digestion, and liver and gallbladder function.

  • Centrophenoxine: Protects the brain, enhances and improves working memory, and has antiaging and antioxidant effects. 3 doses of 250mg per day.
  • Citicoline: Choline + cytidine to reduce memory impairment, cognitive decline, and brain damage, and to improve learning and attention. 1-2g per day.
  • Alpha-GPC: Prevents cognitive decline, protects the brain, reduces inflammation, increases attention span, memory, and growth hormone production. 400mg three times per day.

Amino Acids

Precursors to neurotransmitters and repairs tissues, provides energy, improves mental and physical performance, and helps to grow and maintain muscle.

  • Acetyl-L-Carnitine: Can cross the BBB and enhance memory, learning, and focus. Also improves brain-energy metabolism, reduces fatigue, and has potent anti-aging and brain protective effects, and can induce the production of more mitochondria. Reduces mental fatigue and improves concentration especially in people with chronic fatigue. 500-1500mg per day. 
  • N-Acetyl-Tyrosine: Improves focus, motivation, memory, learning, and mood. A precursor of dopamine and noradrenaline. Building blocks for thyroid hormones. Decreases cortisol levels when under acute stress. 500-2000mg per day (response depends on neurotransmitter health).
  • Taurine: Acts as an antioxidant and can improve memory, reduce anxiety, and promote sleep and relaxation. 500-2000mg.
  • L-Theanine: An antioxidant with neuroprotective properties. Can improve mood, focus, and memory, reduce anxiety, and promote sleep and relaxation. Able to pass through the BBB and thus has a direct impact on the brain. Increases the frequency of alpha waves in the brain, enhances observation skills and cognitive functions when consumed together with caffeine. 100-200mg daily (400mg in a coffee to reduce jitters). 
  • DL-Phenylalanine: Enhances mental alertness, mood, memory, and learning and reduces pain and depression. 1-5g per day. Do not take if you have phenylketonuria.
  • Essential Amino Acids (EAAs): Histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine are essential because your body cannot form their own. Histidine and tryptophan are necessary for neurotransmitter function and neuronal signaling. When amino acid intake is too high, toxicities can arise. Creating excessive nitrogen, ammonia accumulates and can lead to neurotoxicity. 0.36g per pound of bodyweight per day for healthy, not super active people. Athletes require 0.55g per pound. To gain muscle mass, research suggests that you don’t need to eat any more than 0.8g of protein per pound.


  • Vitamin B1 (thiamine): Best taken in the fat-soluble form benfotiamine, which increases mood, energy, alertness, and reduces pain and advanced glycation end products. 30g per day. Alcohol can inhibit absorption of B1.
  • Vitamin B3: When consumed as niacinamide, can reduce inflammation, anxiety, and age-related cognitive impairment. 15mg per day, higher if suffering from trauma, hypoxia, stress, or genetic mutations.
  • Vitamin B5: Water-soluble form calcium pantothenate improves concentration, memory, and learning and reduces brain fog. 500-1000mg per day.
  • Vitamin B6: The bioactive form pyridoxal-5-phosphate increases mental and physical energy, prevents neuronal damage, and plays a role in memory formation, focus, motivation, and mood and sleep regulation. 1.5mg per day for healthy women and 2mg per day for healthy men.
  • Vitamin B12: The form methylcobalamin can improve mood, memory, focus, and energy, and reduce pain, anxiety, and cognitive decline. 1-2mg per day.
  • Vitamin C: The form ascorbic acid has antioxidant and neuroprotective effects, reduces fatigue, and improves mood and blood flow. 90-150mg per day.
  • Vitamin D3: The highly absorbable form called microencapsulated cholecalciferol has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and delays brain degeneration and cognitive decline.1500-2000IU per day. Get a blood test to test status or a genetic test to check the response to sunlight.


Plant extracts that protect your body and brain from the effects of excess stress. Support neurogenesis, hormone production, and adrenal and HPA axis regulation, regulate cellular energy homeostasis, regenerate tissue, and improve learning and memory.

  • Mucuna pruriens: Enhances mood, reduces anxiety and stress, protects the brain, stimulates sex drive, and increases focus and motivation. 12.5-17.5mg per kg of bodyweight per day.
  • Coleus Forskohlii: Improves learning, memory, and mental stamina and reduces fatigue and inflammation. 7.5g per day for healthy women and 9g for healthy men.
  • Rhodiola Rosea (Rhodiola): Improves mood, motivation, memory, and concentration and reduces fatigue and oxidative stress. 50mg can reduce fatigue, while safe neural enhancement occurs at 1500mg per day.
  • ActivAMP: Derived from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, is a form of ginseng root with antiaging and anti-inflammatory effects. It also improves memory and resistance to stress. 100-500mg per day.


Highly absorbable and can cross the BBB to improve cognition.

  • Lithium orotate: Preserves cognitive function, improves mood, and detoxifies the brain. 5-150mg per day.
  • Magnesium threonate: More bioavailable form of magnesium. It improves learning, memory, sleep quality, and mood and reduces anxiety and the effects of neuropathic pain. 600mg per kg of bodyweight.
  • Zinc picolinate: The more bioavailable form of zinc, is a powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune boosting mineral that can improve memory, mood, and neuronal growth. 8-14mg per day for homeostasis. Deficiency can be treated with 2-3 times more.

Anti-inflammatories and Antioxidants 

Addresses oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain. Also supports the transport and utilization of nutrients and regulate nervous system stimulation, hormonal secretion, and cholesterol levels.

  • PQQ: Reduces neurodegeneration and cognitive decline, promotes neuronal growth and survival, and improves sleep, energy, mood, and stress response. Potent mitochondrial and antiaging properties. Is an antioxidant 100 x more powerful than vitamin C at protecting your cells from free radicals. It also stimulates NGF, which helps to grow new neurons and enhance regeneration of peripheral nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. Mouse research has shown PQQ to increase mitochondrial density, reduce inflammation, boost metabolism, combat oxidative stress, improve fertility, improve learning and memory ability, and protect the heart. PQQ also activates PCG-1 alpha in the same way that exercise and nicotine do, sparking biogenesis. Stabilized disodium salts and active PQQ. Needs to be in liposomal form to be absorbed. 0.3mg per day.
  • Quercetin: Found in most fruits and vegetables, can delay cognitive decline, protect neurons from toxins, regulate estrogen and androgen, and reduce inflammation. As a natural antihistamine, it’s been shown to stabilize mast cells. 50-150mg per kg of body weight per day.
  • Curcumin: Anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects and can improve memory and mood, reduce oxidative stress and chronic pain, and delay aging. 8g per day. Pair it with bromelain or an oil-based capsule to absorb it. Black pepper apparently interferes with cytochrome P450 3A4 liver detox. Preventing your body from clearing toxic compounds.
  • DHA: Improve memory, learning, and mood, and reduce oxidative stress, inflammation, and telomere shortening. 500-1000mg daily. 
  • Green Tea Extract: Enhances learning ability, memory, and blood flow, delays aging, and may reduce anxiety and chronic fatigue. When paired with quercetin and L-theanine, the effects become synergistic. 50-500mg per day.
  • Bioperine: Black pepper extract piperine. Increases the absorption of other nutrients, has anti-inflammatory effects, and increases motivation, focus, productivity, and reasoning skills, while stabilizing mood. 20mg per day.

Brain Boosting Stacks

  1. Caffeine and Nicotine: Smokers who don’t drink coffee had twice as much cell damage associated with the cigarettes. Nicotine enhances cognitive performance when combined with coffee and by itself. 1mg nicotine toothpick stick with a coffee. They are both addictive, so limit use.
  2. Caffeine and L-Theanine: 4 parts theanine, one part coffee (100mg caffeine and 400mg theanine) to reduce jitters and increase cognitive abilities and lower anxiety.
  3. Caffeine, Tulsi, and Astragalus: Tulsi is an anxiolytic, so it can help calm coffee’s overstimulating effects. Astragalus contains a variety of saponins, flavonoids, and polysaccharides, and when paired with coffee and tulsi is great at boosting these effects. Four Sigmatic Adaptogen Coffee has these ingredients + cinnamon.
  4. Ginkgo, Bacopa, and Lion’s Mane: Boosts mental focus, memory, learning, and cognitive performance, while reducing anxiety and depression. Allow a 12-week grace period to see results. 500mg lion’s mane daily, 240mg ginkgo daily, and 100mg of bacopa twice per day.
  5. Artichoke and Forskolin: Coleus forskohli can boost cAMP, which reduces brain inflammation and strengthens the BBB, and improves neuronal signaling. Found in CILTEP, which also contains vitamin B6, L-phenylalanine, and acetyl-L-carnitine. 2-3 capsules at the beginning of the day and skip dosing to 1-2 days per week.
  6. Alpha GPC, AC-11, Bacopa, and Huperzine: Alpha brain from Onnit. Choline (for the production of acetylcholine), AC-11 for DNA-repairing antioxidant properties, bacopa for memory and treating PD and epilepsy, Huperzine for neurotransmitter levels, memory, and to protect neurons. Works best after 2 weeks. Just don’t take huperzine if you are taking cholinesterase inhibiting drugs like donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine (AD drugs).
  7. TianChi Chinese Adaptogenic Herb Complex: Many Chinese adaptogens and natural nootropics. The ingredients are non-GMO, wild, organically grown, non-irradiated, and pesticide-free. Potent and can be boosted with beet juice. Mostly due to the vasodilation.
  8. Qualia: Over 42 different ingredients, including all the adaptogens, neurovitamins, amino acids, choline donors, anti-inflammatories, and antioxidants included in this chapter. Also, noopept and curcumin, piperine, and caffeine.

Micro-dosing Psychedelics

A subperceptual dose of LSD, psilocybin, ketamine, and other chemicals. Achieving greater creativity, energy, mood, focus, and relational skills without getting the psychedelic effects.


  • information on dosing, safety, and techniques.
  • Personal anecdotes.
  • sources synthetic versions of 1P-LSD, ALD-52, ETH-LAD, AL-LAD, 4-AcO-DMT, etc. that are “not sold for human consumption.”
  • It interacts with the serotonin receptors in the brain and may be used to treat headaches, anxiety, depression, addiction, and OCD. A microdose ranges from 0.1-0.5g. Combine with lion’s mane and niacin in a cup of tea. Blue lotus extract can also result in a significant release of DMT. Combine for an MDMA like effect.


Good for creativity and energizing. It also has an effect on increasing serotonin levels. It may increase blood flow to control centers of the brain, allowing higher amounts of creativity and greater usage of both hemispheres. It has been used to treat addiction, depression, anxiety, OCD, cluster headaches, end-of-life anxiety, and resistance to behavior change. It also decreases reaction time, increases concentration and balance, decreases pain perception, and improves mood. 5-20micrograms. He buys a blotted paper, then cuts a square of 100micrograms with scissors and drops it into a 10ml dropper bottle of vodka. A single drop is a neat 10micrograms of LSD. If it is too high in concentration, a small dose of CBD (10-20mg) seems to take the edge off.


Used to treat addictions, improve physical energy and cognitive performance, and cause a surge in positive emotions. If you use a tincture, find a source that has the root bark extracted into its purest form and combined with iboga alkaloids. A single drop equates to about 0.5mg microdose of ibogaine. In root bark form, an effective dose is 300-500mg.


When administered as an IV infusion, it works quickly on brain receptors and offers relief from depression in as little as 24 hours. Traditional antidepressants can take up to 8 weeks to become effective, alongside side effects. Ketamine blocks glutamate and opiate receptors, both of which affect depression and pain responses, from being acted on by neurotransmitters. Therapeutic doses are up to 0.5mg per kg of bodyweight. It can allow full body relaxation and decrease pain receptors.


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