The Human Operating Manual

The Ultimate Sleeping Cheat Sheet

The Ultimate Sleeping Cheat Sheet


Sleep Stages
  • Wakefulness
  • Meditative
  • N1
  • N2
  • N3
  • REM
How Much Sleep Do You Really Need?
  • Sleep Needs by Age
  • Changes in Sleep Habits that Can Occur as You Age
Circadian Rhythm
  • A “Typical” Circadian Rhythm Timing
  • Chronobiology
Tools for Upgrading Sleep
  • Setting Up Your Bedroom
    • Darken, bed quality, electromagnetic pollution, air quality, temperature
  •  Biohacker List
Sleep Positioning
  • Back Sleeping
  • Side Sleeping
  • Stomach Sleeping
Preparing for Better Sleep
Going to Bed
  • Relaxation and Stress Relief
  • Opening Up Your Respiratory Tract
  • Sound and light stimulation
  • Sound Proofing
  • Blocking Out Light
  • Electric stimulation
  • Lucid Dreaming
Waking Up Naturally
How to Wake Up Earlier
Measuring & Tracking Sleep
Tips & Guides
  • Power Naps
Sleeping on Airplanes
  • Travel & Sleep
  • How to Manage Jet-Lag
Food, Supplements, and Exercise
Sounding & Grounding
Sleep Or Die
  • How Lack of Sleep Will Kill You
  • How Much Is Enough?
  • Sleep Basics
  • Sleep Better, Not More

Sleep Stages

Wakefulness (beta waves): infrequent and low frequency beta waves predominate in the EEG.

Meditative state with one’s eyes closed: increasingly synchronized alpha and theta waves are visible in the EEG, along with increased production of serotonin.

  • N1 – The first stage (theta waves, 4-8Hz): “Drowsy” sleep. This is a transitory phase from wakefulness to light sleep. Your muscles are alert and active and your eyes may move back and forth. The sleeper changes positions frequently, and is in a deep meditative state. If someone were to wake you up you might not feel like you were asleep. EEG shows irregular oscillations. Your brain waves transition between beta and gamma waves with a frequency of 12-30Hz and 25-100Hz, which are typical of the waking state to slower, more synchronized alpha waves at a frequency of 8-13Hz and, finally, to 4-7Hz theta waves. You don’t usually dream in N1 and you might have micro-awakenings. During this time (approx. 10 minutes) you may hear sounds and conversations, but you’re unwilling to respond. 
  • N2 – The second stage (sleep spindles, 11-16Hz): A period of light sleep, during which there is little movement and the breathing is quiet. Muscle activity declines and your awareness of your surroundings fades. More active brain activity and dreaming is possible. Enough stage 2 sleep improves motor skills. Can be easily awoken. Primarily theta waves, but N2 sleep is distinguished by two things: sleep spindles, which are short bursts of 12-14Hz brain waves (sigma waves) lasting about half a second each, and K complexes, which are short, high voltage negative peaks followed by slower complexes called “positive complexes,” and finally, another negative K complex peak; each slower complex lasts one or two minutes. These sleep spindles and K complexes suppress your response to external stimuli and promote sleep-based memory consolidation and information processing. 45-50% of time is spent in N2. Duration approx. 20-30min.
  • N3 – The third stage (delta waves, 0-8Hz): A period of deep sleep, where breathing is stable and EEG readings consist of slow delta waves. During N3, your awareness declines even more. Your breathing rate, heart rate, brain temperature, blood pressure, and neural activity are at their lowest. You’re more likely to dream in N3 than during light sleep, possibly suffering from night terrors, sleep talking, or sleep walking. Memory consolidation and information processing also occur. Production of HGH begins, and the regenerative mechanisms of the body are activated. During slow-wave sleep, our brains fix memories in place—as do the brains of great apes, including chimpanzees. Our brains also prune out old and redundant information during slow-wave sleep and gain mastery over skills that we learn while awake—typing, skiing, calculus. Hence the adage to “sleep on it.” If woken from this state you would feel groggy and it would take 30 minutes to shake the sleep inertia. N3 makes up about 15-20% of total sleep time. Elderly people experience a shorter duration, by as much as 6min. Duration: 30-40min. 
  • R – REM Sleep (alpha and beta waves): The brain is awake, but the body is asleep. The muscles in the neck and body are paralyzed to prevent sleepwalking. Eyes move under the eyelids, and dreaming is at its peak. The typical adult has 4-5 REM stages a night. The first stage lasts about 10min, while subsequent stages are around 30min. REM is important for the regeneration of nerve cells. REM deprivation leads to irritability, fatigue, memory loss, and reduced capacity for concentration. During REM sleep, we engage in emotional regulation, reflect on what has happened, look forward to what might be possible, and imagine both possible pasts and futures. REM is a creative state; it is sleep’s explorer mode. Infants experience a lot of REM. On average 50% of the total 16 hours of sleep for an infant is REM. REM sleep typically occupies about 20-25% of total sleep in adult humans, or about 1 and a half to 2 hours.

A typical adult’s 7–8-hour sleep moves through first->second->third->second. After this, the sleeper either wakes up or goes into REM. The cycle then repeats itself 4-5 times (90min). It is paramount to maximize deep sleep (N3) by going through at least 3 cycles. Getting enough sleep reorganizes one’s memory and improves one’s learning capacity. Later in the night, REM increases and deep delta sleep decreases.

To improve slow wave sleep, engage in resistance exercise, which releases GH early in the night. Don’t exercise too late though, otherwise you’ll be too stimulated to fall into deep sleep. Arginine may also improve SWS. 

On a personal note, my deep sleep scores were terrible until I went on a 5 day fast. Once I broke my fast, my deep sleep went up dramatically. 

Total sleep time:

  • Awake time: 1-5%
  • REM sleep: 20-25%
  • Light sleep (N1 + N2): 50-55%
  • Deep sleep (N3): 15-20%

Going through a full cycle of the stages should take around 90 minutes and you should go through 4-5 of these sleep cycles during a 24 hour period. Use a tracker to become more in tune with what quality and poor quality feels like. Then you won’t need to worry about obsessing over the numbers. Similar to calorie counting. It may be good to count for a while to figure out what each item represents and how it affects you, but once you get the gist of it you can stop counting.

How Much Sleep Do You Really Need?

Age, genetics, environment, and differences in daily physical and mental strain can all cause significant variations in the ideal amount of sleep. Most people should get no more than 9 but no less than 7 hours sleep. However, physical activity affects sleep requirements and may need way more than usual.

Sleep Needs by Age

  • Newborns (0-3 months): 14-17 hours
  • Infants (4-11 months): 12-15 hours
  • Toddlers (1-2 years): 11-14 hours
  • Preschoolers (3-5): 10-13 hours
  • School-age children (6-13): 9-11 hours
  • Teenagers (14-17): 8-10 hours
  • Younger adults (18-25): 7-9 hours
  • Adults (26-64): 7-9 hours
  • Older adults (65+): 7-8 hours

Changes in Sleep Habits That Can Occur as you Age

  • Advanced sleep timing, in which you both go to bed and wake up earlier.
  • Longer sleep onset latency, which means it takes longer to fall asleep.
  • Overall shorter sleep duration.
  • Increases in deep-sleep interruptions, such as frequent forays into light-sleep stages.
  • More-fragile sleep, so that you are awakened more easily by noises and lights.
  • Less slow-wave (deep) sleep.
  • Increases in lighter NREM sleep stages, which is less restorative than deep NREM sleep.
  • Shorter and fewer sleep cycles.
  • More time spent awake throughout the night.

Circadian Rhythm

Circadian rhythms are biological processes linked to the cycles of the day. Many bodily functions vary according to these rhythms, including:

  • Body temperature
  • Pulse rate and blood pressure
  • Reaction time and performance
  • The production of melatonin, serotonin, and cortisol
  • Intestinal activity

Lux is the unit most often used for light intensity. 1 lux = 1sqm surface illumination 1m away from a candle.

Seeing as light is the most effective cue for the circadian rhythm, it is important that we view about 100,000 lux per day, with a greater effect in the morning hours. Luminosity must reach 1000lux in intensity to have an effect on that rhythm – compared to 320-500 lux that we find in a typical office and the 32,000-130,000 lux that we receive from direct sunlight. It is 50 times less effective to view light through a window than to go outside upon waking. You need to time your cortisol pulse properly by getting exposure to early morning sun. Don’t wait too long. A late cortisol pulse correlates with depression and affects the melatonin pulse later in the evening, making it harder to fall asleep. The longer you’ve been awake, the more sensitive the RGCs are to light. Reduce light after 8pm and get plenty of light exposure during the day. Only takes about 1000-1500 lux to shift your clock in the middle of the night because the RGCs are so sensitive. Light between 11pm and 4am suppresses the release of dopamine and can inhibit learning. Light to the eyes, signal to the habenula in the thalamus. When it is activated (the disappointment nucleus) we feel less happy. Suggesting that it would be much more effective to go for a 20-minute walk first thing in the morning, and a post prandial walk in the evening, to let your brain know what time it is.

Eye neurons look for the sun angle (low in the sky during sunrise and sunset). The spectrum of light changes with the sun angle (yellows and blues). Low angle in the afternoon. Melanopsin cells recognize sunset and prevents/buffers the bad influences of light (phone, computer, LEDs, etc.) later too. Cells in the bottom half of retina are viewing overhead light and are greatly activated when bright light is above us. Place lights low in the environment at night time to prevent any extreme effects.

In humans, we feel an elevation of mood during summer. Increased viewing of sunlight increases dopamine levels in the brain, increased dopamine levels in animals and humans increases the number of melanocytes and the activity of these melanin producing cells, and indirectly increase sex steroid hormones and mood. Optimizing your sleep and getting more light viewing first thing in the morning is critical for cortisol timing and testosterone and estrogen levels. Avoiding bright light exposure in the middle of the night prevents dopamine suppression and therefore testosterone suppression.

The connections between melanopsin cells in the eye and the circadian clock are plastic throughout the lifespan. Astrocytes actively remove and reinforce connections between the eye and the clock every day. These connections become primed for the anticipation of light if you get early morning light. Helping you wake up earlier by the connection to the adrenals, which release cortisol.

A “Typical” Circadian Rhythm Timing

  • 12:00am: Leptin releases fat reserves to burn during sleep; melatonin slows neurons so the nervous system can recover and reset; prolactin increases cell recycling and renewal.
  • 2:00am: Deepest sleep.
  • 3:00am: Lowest blood pressure.
  • 4:30am: Lowest body temperature.
  • 2-6:00am: Body temperature falls; neurons grow, inflammation drops, T cells increase. Ben uses a chiliPAD at 55 degrees, and his home kept at 63-65F.
  • 6:00am: Cortisol rises to wake you up by increasing the heart rate and glucose uptake by the brain. Your body releases vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). VIP stimulates actions associated with waking activity, such as vasodilation, increased contractility in your heart, and liver glycogenolysis (the breakdown of liver glycogen stores). More blood, nutrients, and oxygen delivered to your brain, muscles, and other tissues. VIP also relaxes the smooth muscles of your trachea, stomach, and gallbladder allowing for a bowel movement within two hours of waking. VIP also promotes ghrelin secretion (hunger hormone). A regularly timed breakfast can help to reset your hormonal cycle. Photoreceptors in your eyes trigger waking activity, improving alertness and mood, jump-starting your circadian rhythm, and suppressing melatonin levels. So, getting morning sun will help to encourage this and help you to rest easier at night by reducing cortisol in the evening. Walking, cycling, light yoga in the early morning will help to reset the circadian rhythm too. Doing some sort of light activity fasted first thing in the morning will enhance your ability to burn fat for the rest of the day. If you can’t get sunlight first thing, drink coffee, green tea, adaptogenic herbs such as the TianChi blend, or use blue-light producing devices, such as the HumanCharger in-ear device and the Re-Timer glasses. You can also use a red-light exposure device like a Joov red light photobiomodulation panel, a Clearlight infrared sauna, or a SaunaSpace red light bulb configuration. Nothing beats natural sunlight though.
  • 6:45am: Sharpest rise in blood pressure.
  • 7:30am: Melatonin secretion stops.
  • 8:30am: Bowel movement likely.
  • 10:00am: Highest alertness.
  • 6-11:00am: Sex hormone levels peak. If you are male, you produce the most testosterone while entering REM sleep and maintain high levels until you wake up. After you wake up, testosterone levels decrease throughout the day with surges in secretion every 90 minutes. Women have cyclic testosterone too but at lower levels. Morning sex may also help to reset your circadian rhythm.
  • 2:30pm: Muscle coordination and reaction time is at its peak.
  • 3:30am: Fastest reaction time.
  • 5:30pm: Cardiovascular efficiency, body temperature, protein synthesis, and recovery capacity peak, making these ideal times for intense workouts. If you keep your carbohydrate intake limited to the evening, you can consume them after a workout when you are the most sensitive to insulin and carbohydrates. The surge in serotonin after consumption will make you sleep better too. 
  • At sunset/7:00pm: Your body temperature and blood pressure peak. Take a cold shower or a cold soak to help your body naturally drop its temperature.
  • 9:00pm: Melatonin secretion starts.
  • From sunset to bedtime: Depending on your chronobiology, leptin and adiponectin are released to burn fat while you sleep. But high insulin levels, a sedentary afternoon, a high calorie evening meal, and frequent grazing throughout the day can suppress the secretion of leptin and adiponectin, and even excessive nighttime light exposure can suppress leptin release. Avoid high calorie intake in the late afternoon and evening or perform a hard workout in the afternoon, and limit exposure to your smartphone, e-reader, TV, and laptop after sunset.
    • To enhance adiponectin release, you can take 300-500mg of magnesium before bed. MCT oil, nut butters, seeds, nuts, and even fructose from raw honey do not significantly spike insulin and may be consumed late in the evening.
  • 10:00pm: Melatonin rises and makes you feel tired by turning off waking brain activity to allow for neural repair and by pulling oxygen and hormones away from the rest of your body. The protein agouti also peaks around 10:00pm. Agouti can stimulate your appetite if leptin levels are suppressed, causing late night snacking if the circadian rhythm has been disrupted by blue light or blood glucose fluctuation.
  • 10:30pm: Bowel movements suppressed.
  • 11:00pm: Gastrointestinal activity drops.
  • During sleep: Glymphatic system removes waste (metabolic by-products and toxins) from the central nervous system. Especially during slow-wave NREM sleep. A PEMF machine set to delta mode can improve glymphatic function by allowing faster deep sleep. Consuming omega-3 fatty acids can also improve glymphatic drainage.


Your personal circadian rhythm will vary depending on your chronobiology. Visit to find your chronotype.

Here is a guide to optimize timing and efficiency of a workday for varying chronobiologies: 

Dolphin: Light sleepers and often diagnosed with insomnia. 10% of the population.

  • 6:30am: Wake up and exercise
  • 7:30am: Eat breakfast
  • 9:30am: Have coffee
  • 10am-12pm: Brainstorm and work on creative projects
  • 12pm: Eat lunch
  • 1-4pm: Walkaround the block if you’re feeling tired
  • 4-6pm: Work on intellectually demanding tasks. Send professional emails
  • 6pm: Meditate or do yoga
  • 6:30-8pm: Eat dinner
  • 10:30-11:30pm: Turn off all screens. Take a hot shower/bath. Read a novel
  • 11:30pm: Go to sleep

Lion: Tend to wake up early with lots of energy. By early evening, they’re exhausted. 15-20% of the population.

  • 5:30am: Wake up and eat breakfast
  • 6-7am: Do planning and big-picture thinking. Meditate
  • 9-10am: Have coffee
  • 10am-12pm: Hold meetings
  • 12pm: Eat lunch
  • 1-5pm: Brainstorm and journal
  • 5-6pm: Exercise
  • 6-7pm: Eat dinner
  • 10pm: Turn off all screens
  • 10:30pm: Go to sleep

Bear: Bears’ internal clocks track the rise and fall of the sun. They need a full 8 hours of sleep. 50% of the population. 

  • 7am: Wake up and do a few minutes of exercise
  • 7:30am: Eat breakfast
  • 9-10am: Plan your day
  • 10am: Have coffee
  • 10am-12pm: Work on difficult tasks. Send professional emails
  • 12pm: Take a walk, eat lunch, and take another walk
  • 2:30-2:50pm: Nap or meditate
  • 3-6pm: Make phone calls and send emails
  • 6-7pm: Exercise
  • 7:30pm: Eat dinner
  • 8-10pm: Brainstorm
  • 10pm: Turn off all screens
  • 11pm: Go to sleep

Wolf: Wolves have a hard time waking up and are most energetic in the evenings. 15-20% of the population. 

  • 7-7:30am: Wake up with two alarms. Jot down your thoughts
  • 7:30am: Eat breakfast
  • 8:30am: Do a few minutes of outdoor exercise
  • 9am: Plan your day
  • 11am-1pm: Have coffee. Take care of busy work
  • 1pm: Take a walk and eat lunch
  • 4-6pm: Hold meetings and present your ideas to coworkers
  • 6-7pm: Exercise
  • 8pm: Eat dinner
  • 11pm: Turn off all screens. Meditate. Take a hot shower
  • 12am: Go to sleep

Tools for Upgrading Sleep

Sleeping pills have the risk of dependency, withdrawals – sleeplessness, tiredness, and memory problems – undesirable brain changes, and many others.

Setting up your bedroom

Darken your room. Sunlight, moonlight, and LEDs on electronics can disturb sleep.

  • Use blackout curtains
  • Darken LEDs with black adhesive tape
  • Switch lamps to brands that don’t emit the blue spectrum of light (lamps that change spectrum according to the cycle of the day, salt lamps).

Bed quality and ergonomics (must be breathable)

  • A mattress made of organic cotton, wool, hemp, or natural rubber (instead of being covered with polyurethane foam and chemicals that are potentially allergenic)
  • Oat, cherry, spelt, or buckwheat pillows
  • Organic cotton, leather, silk, etc. sheets and blankets that promote better thermoregulation.
  • Wear no clothes, to prevent bands blocking the lymphatic system.
  • Sleep without a pillow
  • Use a pillow that supports the neck
  • Have a pillow between the legs (when sleeping on your side)
  • Sleeping on your back or right side. Other positions put stress on internal organs. If you suffer from heartburn, the left side is a better option.
    • Use a heavy comforter if you move a lot during the night
    • Sleeping on your stomach is not recommended to anybody (except those with a spinal disc herniation)
    • Sleeping on your back is not recommended if you suffer from sleep apnea due to the risk of respiratory arrest.

Electromagnetic pollution

  • Some people experience sensitivity to electromagnetic radiation, but its existence is not yet verified. Some studies suggest that “grounding” can alleviate insomnia.
  • Grounding mat
  • WLAN routers and mobile phones at a distance, and switching to flight mode. A 20min phone call will emit more radiation than a WLAN base station per year.
  • Walk barefoot during the day, or use grounding (earthing) shoes.
  • Scanning the radiation levels in the bedroom (with EMF and EMC detectors)

Air quality

  • Ventilate the bedroom during the day
  • Exclude the possibility of mold (DIY measuring kits or professional testing is available)
  • House plants to increase humidity, turn carbon dioxide into oxygen, and release negative ions into the air (golden cane palm, snake plant, devil’s ivy, etc.)
  • Ventilate at night but avoid a direct draft near the head
  • Air filtering (UV, HEPA, carbon filtering, photocatalytic oxidation, air ionizer)
  • Adjusting humidity with technical tools (30-50% humidity)
  • A well ventilating house. Natural construction methods, eco paints and finishing materials
  • Specific incenses and relaxing essential oils (ylang ylang, vanilla, lavendar) may increase sleepiness at the cost of air quality


  • The temperature of the body drops during sleep. Sleeping in a room that is too hot or cold makes maintaining thermoregulation difficult.
  • Adjust radiators and air conditioning
  • Keeping windows open and ventilating the space properly
  • The optimal temperature for most people is around 18-22 degrees Celsius (64-69 Fahrenheit)

Biohacker list

  • Blackout curtains
  • Air humidifier/purifier/ionizer
  • Temperature 18-22C
  • Air humidity 30-50%
  • Salt lamp
  • Magnesium supplements
  • Thermoregulation (breathable mattress)
  • Memory foam pillow
  • Light spectrum changing lamp
  • Sleep tracker
  • Phone in airplane mode
  • Air filtering plants

Sleep Positioning

Back Sleeping:

This position promotes symmetry the most by equally distributing stress throughout the body and compresses joints the least. However, it can contribute to sleep apnea and snoring, can place more stress on the lower back, and be uncomfortable for people with pre-existing poor posture. Place a pillow under your knees to allow your lower back to flatten. This position can alleviate tension.

Place the pillow so that it supports the small of your neck. There should be complete contact of your neck on the pillow and no contact with the backs of your shoulders. Neck Nest is a recommended pillow. Also, a zero-gravity bed.

Esther Gokhale’s method of stretch lying:

  1. Lie down on your back
  2. Bend both knees and plant your feet on the bed hip-width apart
  3. Prop your upper body up on your elbows
  4. Slightly lower yourself onto the bed one vertebra at a time
  5. Place your hands behind your head and slowly elongate the back of your neck
  6. Pull your shoulder blades away from your ears and down toward your feet
  7. Straighten out your body and allow your legs to relax to the sides

Side Sleeping:

Hip alignment can be corrected by sleeping in a straight and neutral position. If you have wide shoulders or hips it may put too much stress on one side though.

Place a pillow between your legs to stop rotation and offload stress. There should be complete contact of your neck and no pillow contact on the back of the shoulders. A slight bend in the knees is fine, but avoid the fetal position. Remain elongated if possible.

This position encourages glymphatic fluid drain, exchanging cerebrospinal fluid for interstitial fluid to clear waste from the brain parenchyma. During sleep, when the brain is relatively quiet, the volume of its interstitial space expands, allowing efficient waste removal (such as amyloid plaques).

Stomach Sleeping:

Just don’t. Unless you want a neck injury, a sore jaw, or a hyperextended low back.

Preparing for Better Sleep

  • Stay Hydrated: Consume trace mineral drops, trace liquid minerals, quality sea salt (such as Colima sea salt), and plenty of water. This will help control appetite that sleep deprivation notoriously causes.
  • Caffeinate Smart: Don’t overconsume.
  • Move It: Reset your internal clock by getting outside in the sun, light aerobic exercise, whether it’s yoga or a quick walk. Regular exercise for 20-30min daily helps balance the daily rhythm and significantly improves sleep quality.
    • Pain in the muscles and connective tissue may cause insomnia. Try acupuncture, massage, sauna, yoga, and stretching. Take relaxing baths (e.g. with magnesium chloride in the bath water during evenings).
  • Blue spectrum light (450-490nm): Movement, light, and vitamin D will realign your circadian rhythm and eliminate some of your sleep deprived anxiety. If you do this in an overnight-fasted state, it will enhance your fat-burning capabilities for the rest of the day. During the day, especially after waking up, is an important factor in maintaining one’s alertness and circadian rhythm.
    • Use a full spectrum light therapy lamp.
    • Spend time in sunlight. 15-minute walk daily, set up workstation near a window.
    • Avoid the use of sunglasses during the day that block blue spectrum light. It may start melatonin production early.
  • Eat Right: When you are sleep deprived your leptin levels will be high and your ghrelin levels will be low. Eating refined carbs and fats will make you more tired. Eat foods high in protein, low in fat, and low on the glycemic index. Protein increases the production of orexin, a hormone that keeps you awake and alert.
  • Buffer Immunity: When sleep deprived, your immune system function declines and levels of pro-inflammatory compounds increase.
    • Take 1000mg of activated charcoal to flush circulating toxins out of your system
    • Place 4-5 drops of oregano oil under your tongue to protect yourself from foodborne and airborne bacteria.
    • To reduce inflammation, take 1000mg of curcumin after a poor night’s sleep.
  • Nap Right: Don’t nap beyond 20min as it will transition you into deeper sleep states, that will result in grogginess.

Going to Bed

Relaxation and stress relief

  • Relieve stress with heart rate variability training before going to bed.
  • Use a spike mat to improve circulation in the skin and release endorphins and oxytocin which help you to calm down and relax.
  • Practice breathing exercises.
  • Listen to relaxing audio tracks.
  • Have sex.
  • Go to a sauna.

Opening up your respiratory tract

  • Learn to breathe through your nose.
  • Use a nasal strip or a nasal spray to keep your respiratory tract open.
  • Use a neti pot for nasal cleaning.
  • Improve the air quality in your bedroom.

Sound and light stimulation

  • Binaural beats with headphones.
  • Create a natural soundscape with a computer or mobile apps.
  • Light stimulation with red spectrum light that induces melatonin production.


  • Earplugs
  • Pressure regulating earplugs for airplane travel.

Blocking out light

  • Eye patches or sleeping masks
  • Blackout curtains

Electric stimulation. Proven to have an effect on the production of GABA and serotonin

  • Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation “electrosleep”

Lucid dreaming

  • Write down a sleep diary
  • Try self-suggestion right before going to bed; and reality checks during dreams.
  • Wake yourself during a lucid dream and try to remember your dreams.
  • So-called sleep herbs such as Artemisa vulgaris, Heimia salicifolia, Synaptolepsis kirkii, and Huperzia serrata may support the practice.

Waking Up Naturally

  • Unpronounced soundscapes during the night (nature and traffic) reduces the stress response in the morning. Create a gradually developing soundscape that emulates nature waking up.
  • Use a wake-up light that imitates sunrise.
  • Wake up later. Use an app to check your sleep stages so you aren’t waking up during an N3 stage.
  • Stressful experiences and thoughts about a mounting workload can increase stress response. The night before, write wandering thoughts and 3 most important things you need to do. After that, consider meditation.
  • Kickstart the adrenals with table salt and an inverted body position. Ingest 1/2 a liter of water mixed with 1/2 teaspoon of salt within 15min of waking up.
  • Inversions, a handstand or headstand, to improve circulation in your body and to boost your adrenal glands.
  • Yoga, jogging, or stretching.
  • Try a warm shower or bath, finished with a cold shower (closes pores).
  • Vibration plate, jumping jacks, or mini trampoline to increase blood and lymph circulation.

How to Wake Up Earlier

We have can phase advance and phase delay our sleep onset depending on our daytime activity. Which can also shift our desire to go to bed earlier or later depending on morning light exposure. If you struggle to wake early, get light exposure before your normal waking time to shift your clock so that you feel sleepier earlier that day.

Currently, people’s internal mechanisms don’t appear to be anchored to anything regular, which is contributing to the lack of focus and depression felt by a lot of the modern population.

Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR): Yoga nidra is a sort of meditation that allows you to consciously go into relaxation. 10-30 minutes at a time. Less sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and it promotes parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity. It also allows dopamine to reset itself and for us to regulate DPO (deliberate attention- duration, path, outcome) tasks.

Hypnosis brings the focused/alert and deep rest (when reconfiguration happens) components into the same period of time. It requires guidance to create cessation of smoking and sleep changes. It does this by modulating the neural circuits related to sleep.

Measuring & Tracking Sleep

Self-quantification can be detrimental to quality of life. By drawing more attention to the output rather than the process, constant measurement and quantification can make enjoyable activities feel more like work. The same could be said of sleep.

Sleep quality can be measured with the following approaches:

  • EEG: tracks various phases and cycles of sleep
  • EMG: measures jaw muscle tension
  • EOG: measures eye movements
  • HRV: measures stress level during the night and the body’s response. The PNS activates itself during NREM while the SNS activates during REM.
  • Nocturnal movements: one’s sleep should have periods every night that last at least 15min where there is no discernible movement.
  • Temperature: room temperature
  • MSLT (Multiple Sleep Latency Test)
  • MWT (Maintenance of Wakefulness Test)
  • Body temperature: drops during the night
  • Melatonin readings from saliva
  • Heartbeat: drops during the night
  • Oxygen saturation: levels of oxygen in the blood
  • Blood pressure: drops during the night
  • Sound levels: background noise and snoring

Tips for measuring:

  • Activity trackers and watches
  • Wearable jewelry such as smart rings
  • Sleep trackers that sense body movements during sleep using radio waves
  • Sleep trackers that are placed under the bed sheets
  • Sleep applications that utilize the motion sensors of a smartphone
  • Sleep trackers fastened to the head that sense eye movements or electroencephalogram signals
  • Heart rate belts that measure sleep quality

To maximize sleep quality, aim for the following:

  • REM: 20-25% of time spent asleep
  • Deep sleep: 10-20%
  • Total sleep: 7-8 hours
  • Falling asleep within 15min
  • Little to no waking up in the night
  • Increased HRV during the night, indicating the activation of the PNS
  • Daily resting HR in the morning is constant or decreasing compared to monthly average
  • Little to no snoring
  • No unusual restlessness or movements during the night
  • The soundscape during the night contains nothing that stands out

If the morning HR begins to creep up, try to organize rest days to boost recovery.

Tips and Guides

Power naps

  • Don’t fall deeper than N2 stages. Naps should last no longer than 20min. The sleep inertia grogginess is caused by the increased production of adenosine. If one wants to catch up on lost sleep, or accelerate learning, it might be beneficial to sleep longer. 90 minute cycle.
  • If you nap for more than half an hour, you are probably not sleeping enough at night, or you have some adrenal imbalances that you need to address.
  • The best time to nap is 6-8 hours after waking up. This is when the dip in alertness and sleep propensity is highest.
  • Avoid caffeine and other stimulants 1-4 hours before.
  • Eat before your nap. Hypoglycemia may disrupt sleep.
  • Don’t exercise immediately before your nap. Naps can assist with recovery, but try to finish working out at least 45 minutes before.
  • Schedule your lowest stress activities for before the nap, like rearranging your desk, cleaning the garage, reading, writing, etc. Not phone calls or emails.
  • Don’t use an alarm clock unless you have to. Waking up unnaturally while your brain is consolidating information is disorientating. You will release cortisol and adrenaline. Once you begin a healthy napping schedule, your body will naturally wake up after 20-60 minutes. If you need an alarm clock, use SunRise Alarm Clock, the Sleep Time by Azumio iPhone app, or the Sleep as Android app. Alternatively, you can use the chiliPAD to circulate warm water under your body when you would like to begin waking up. If you have to, set the alarm for 20min.
  • Cover your eyes with a sleeping mask
  • Us earplugs, if in a noisy environment, or use headphones with white noise
  • Breathe in deeply and calmly. Impersonating someone sleeping actually may help.
  • Try napping with a spike mat to release endorphins and oxytocin and increase blood flow.
  • Don’t force it. If you can’t nap, don’t worry about it. Just work on your normal sleep routine.
  • Try to nap at the same time of day and have the same pre-nap sequences.
  • Don’t use alcohol or sedatives to initiate a nap.

Sleeping on Airplanes

Travel and Sleep

  • Avoid stimulants 6 hours before flying.
  • Use the toilet immediately upon boarding.
  • Request a window seat. It is far easier to sleep when you lean your head against the airplane wall. Also, this way you don’t have to make way for passengers wanting to use the toilet.
  • Make more leg room by selecting a seat in the exit row.
  • Avoid noisy seats near the toilet or engine.
  • Dress comfortably. Wear a warm hat and replace shoes with woolen flight socks.
  • Try supplements to improve the ability to fall asleep, such as L-theanine and melatonin.
  • Consume a serving of reishi mushroom extract, such as two packets of the Four Sigmatic blend. This will allow you to sleep without waking up drowsy, especially when combined with 20-40mg of CBD.
  • Use a J-shaped travel pillow.
  • Tell the attendant that you intend to sleep and do not wish to be disturbed.
  • Try to sleep the moment you board. Takeoff and the initial ascent usually last long enough so that by the time food arrives you already feel well rested. However, do not adjust the seat into a reclining position and fasten the seatbelt. Otherwise the attendant will wake you.
  • Eliminate noise. Foam earplugs combined with noise-blocking headphones.
  • Eliminate light. Wear a full wraparound sleep mask.

How to Manage Jet Lag:

  1. Practice grounding: As soon as you land at your destination go outside in your bare feet. You can also use the PEMF device set at 7-10Hz. For the greatest concentration of negative ions, swim in the ocean or take a walk after a lightening storm.
  2. Get light exercise: The sooner you can exercise after landing the faster the jet lag will go. Unless you arrive late at night. Do exercise outside for greater effect (sun exposure).
  3. Avoid stimulants until you arrive: Limit caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine. They override the CNS and have the potential to disrupt an already disrupted circadian rhythm.
  4. Take melatonin: 60-80mg before going to bed at your destination. Melatonin is also anti-inflammatory so it will help to reduce inflammation gained from being exposed to WiFi signals, solar radiation, dehydration from altitude, dry filtered air, toxin-laden airplane food, bad water, and airborne pathogens.
  5. Drink lots of water: 16-20 ounces of water each hour with electrolytes.
  6. Take a cold shower: Cold showers reduce inflammatory cytokine levels, activate brown adipose tissue to burn fat, and induce a hormone response, by releasing high amounts of adrenaline. Splashing cold water on your face can help, but it is not as good as immersion or showering. For best results, find a spa that allows dry sauna and cold plunging. Cold showers also dilate your blood vessels because they release more nitric oxide, and the subsequent increase in glucose and oxygen intake by your organs and muscles can dramatically reduce jet lag.
  7. Consume curcumin: A potent antioxidant when taken on an empty stomach before and after flying. It also crosses the BBB and shuts down inflammatory cytokines in neural tissue and may even boost testosterone and growth hormone production. 1000mg of curcumin (with black pepper). A meal with curries and sulfurous vegetables can work.
  8. Seek out sulfur: An excellent source of antioxidant precursors and help to reduce the inflammation that can occur when flying. Broccoli, cauliflower, garlic, onion, and brussels sprouts. Supplements containing sulfurous compounds like glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, MSM, or DMSO, can be more effective. Glutathione, astaxanthin, selenium, vitamin E, CoQ10, N-acetylcysteine, vitamin C, alpha-lipoic acid.
  9. Get a hit of oxytocin: Oxytocin lifts your mood and acts as an antioxidant, antidepressant, and anti-inflammatory. Naturally released after sex and during childbirth and breastfeeding, but you can supplement with oxytocin nasal spray (10-21 IU per day). 

Food, Supplements, and Exercise


1. Seek out sleep enhancing food:

Fatty cold-water fish like salmon and mackerel contain high amounts of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids, essential nutrients for regulating serotonin and sleep. Stick to more wild and fibrous fruits like kiwifruit. Tart cherries improve sleep by raising melatonin levels. A potent sleep inducing dinner would be: wild-caught salmon fillets topped with tart cherry sauce or sliced kiwi, along with roasted vegetables, for fiber, and a bit of white rice to boost serotonin secretion. For desert, try a spoonful of coconut oil topped with a dab of almond butter, a pinch of sea salt, and a drizzle of raw honey. Providing a slow release of energy as well as minerals to regulate blood pressure and cortisol levels.

2. Pay attention to the glycemic content of your food:

If it takes you a long time to fall asleep, consume any high-glycemic index carbohydrates, such as rice, bananas, or baked potatoes, at least 4 hours before bed. Avoid sweet deserts after dinner and instead consume your nightly bar of dark chocolate or bowl of coconut ice cream when you are in a more insulin sensitive state, such as after a workout. Avoid snacking in the late afternoon and evening, and limit dinner carbohydrates to lower-glycemic index sources like dark, leafy greens and sweet potatoes.

A delicious drink to aid digestion, relax an amped up nervous system, and get ready for a restful sleep:

  • 1/2 cup full-fat coconut milk
  • 1 tsp. ginger powder, or 2 tbsp. ground fresh ginger
  • 1 tsp. turmeric powder, or 2 tbsp. ground fresh turmeric
  • 1/4 tsp. ground nutmeg
  • 4 whole peppercorns, crushed
  • 2-3 drops organic liquid stevia
  • 1 tsp. coconut oil
  • Pinch of ground cinnamon
  • Place all the ingredients, except the coconut oil and cinnamon in a saucepan over medium heat and bring to a simmer, then turn the heat down to low. Simmer for 5 minutes, then remove the pan from the heat and allow to cool for 5 minutes. Strain the cooled liquid through a fine-mesh strainer or cheesecloth into a class or mug. Add the coconut oil. Sprinkle with ground cinnamon if desired for additional flavor.

3. Have a light dinner:

Stop eating when you are 80% full and take a 20-30 minute post-prandial walk to aid digestion and control blood sugar. If you do eat a large meal, take a luke-warm/cold shower to cool your body temperature and enhance deep sleep.

4. Consume adequate protein:

The amino acid tryptophan is found in high concentrations in turkey, chicken, red meat, eggs, fish, spirulina, almonds, and pumpkin seeds. Tryptophan is necessary for your body to produce serotonin and melatonin. You can slightly increase the level of tryptophan in your brain by consuming carbohydrates with these sources. They promote the release of insulin, which shovels all amino acids except tryptophan into muscle or fat tissue. As a result, you have more tryptophan in your blood, so the amino acid transporters in the BBB shuttle more tryptophan into your brain to be turned into serotonin and melatonin. You should aim for 0.55g of protein per pound of body weight per day and increase to 0.7-0.7g if you have sleep problems. For a low calorie option, you can supplement with essential amino acids (10-20g per day).

5. Consume adequate carbohydrates:

If you frequently wake up during the night, you may need more carbohydrates to stop hypoglycemia. On active days, Ben consumes 100-200g slow release carbohydrates like legumes, amaranth, quinoa, millet, and sweet potatoes. A fat adapted person will enter ketosis by the morning so it is better to get some carbohydrates so you can sleep than to worry about leaving ketosis. Unless you are managing a disease like epilepsy or multiple sclerosis.

6. Limit your saturated fat intake:

Low to moderate saturated fat during the evening meal. Don’t overdo it or you’ll feel like you have a brick in your stomach.


  • Tryptophan: When it accumulates in your blood it crosses the BBB and is converted to 5-hydroxytrytamine (5-HT), a precursor of serotonin. 5-HT is also a precursor to melatonin in your pineal gland and causes lethargy and drowsiness. Sources like whey protein can increase tryptophan levels up to 130%. If you eat the recommended protein and carbohydrates you shouldn’t need tryptophan supplements, but if you do, take 1g to improve sleep.
  • B-complex vitamins: Your body produces vitamin B3 (niacin) from tryptophan. It may be beneficial to take supplemental niacin so that the tryptophan you consume is used to synthesize more serotonin instead. Vitamin B9 (folate) and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) also help convert tryptophan into serotonin. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) helps synthesize melatonin; supplementing with B12 is particularly important for vegetarians because it is primarily found in animal foods.
  • Magnesium: Magnesium helps convert 5-HT into N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, a precursor to melatonin. The most absorbable forms are magnesium citrate, glycinate, taurate, and aspartate, although magnesium that is bound to malate, succinate, or fumirate is also effective. 200-500mg. Consuming more than 1500mg per day can result in loose stools.
  • Zinc: Zinc deficiency reduces melatonin levels. Perhaps this is why athletes tend to be zinc deficient and swear by ZMAs (zinc monomethionine aspartate, magnesium aspartate, and vitamin B6). You can get zinc from shellfish and black ant extract.
  • Melatonin: Chronic use can result in headaches, nausea, daytime drowsiness, and even nightmares. 0.3-12mg to improve sleep. A more natural way is to take 0.3mg microdose at night or increase tryptophan levels.
  • L-theanine: Found in green tea leaves but can be taken as a supplement. It can reduce stress and increase relaxation without causing drowsiness, most notably when combined with caffeine. L-theanine crosses the BBB in about 30 minutes and improves mental relaxation without loss of alertness by acting directly on the CNS. Once it crosses the BBB, it reduces SNS activity, improves post-stress relaxation, lowers blood pressure, and reduces cortisol levels and anxiety. 100-200mg to start with. With caffeine, 1:4 caffeine to L-theanine ratio (100mg caffeine: 400mg L-theanine).
  • Vitamin D: Deficiency is strongly associated with musculoskeletal pain and hormone deficiencies. Chronically low levels are associated with poor sleep and may contribute to obstructive sleep apnea and associated cardio vascular disease. Risk factors for low vitamin D levels include dark skin tone, obesity, limited sunlight exposure, pregnancy, chronic anticonvulsant use, chronic steroid use, intestinal malabsorption syndromes, and genetic inability to properly synthesize vitamin D from sunlight. Typical doses range between 2000-4000IU per day and should always be taken with 100-150mcg of vitamin K2 to limit the risk of high blood calcium levels.


Tells the body it is time for sleep but by initiating the process of sleep production. The rhythm of cortisol and melatonin is endogenous. Hormonal and neuronal systems work together to coordinate the physiological response to external cues. If you were in complete darkness, the cortisol release would happen once during the day, but it would get later and later without light cues to coordinate its rhythm.

Usually when you wake up, light comes in, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) communicate light signals to the supra chiasmatic nucleus (SCN). This has connections to essentially every cell in your body. If you don’t get the cortisol and melatonin rhythm right, there are many broad negative effects on cardiovascular health, metabolic health, learning ability, dementia risk, etc.

Not great as a sleep aid exogenously (supplementation).

The positive effects of melatonin are that seems to drop body temperature, which may induce a sleepier state, and it is also an antioxidant. 

It is also androgen suppressive at high levels. Pre-pubescent individuals probably shouldn’t take melatonin exogenously (oral supplement) as it also suppresses the onset of puberty. Regular cyclical melatonin release (at night) correlates with early adulthood. Melatonin inhibits gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates luteinizing hormone. In females, this releases estrogen and in men, testosterone. You can make animals infertile by giving them melatonin. Melatonin operates on a concentration level, so a small child with more melatonin can have their sex hormones inhibited. 

Unless you are elderly, the benefits of melatonin supplementation are quite small. Typical dose is 5-10mg. Keep in mind that some melatonin brands have incorrect labelling quantities because it is completely unregulated.

Late night sleep induced snack. Hour before bed.

  • Sandman’s snack:
    • half an avocado
    • handful of soaked and crushed almonds and/or pumpkin seeds (Styrian variety)
    • 1 tbsp of unpasteurized honey
    • half a banana (not overrripe)
    • a touch of unrefined salt
    • 1 dl of relaxing tea: passionflower, chamomile, kava or valerian
    • 1 tbsp of bee pollen


  • Perform light aerobic exercise early in the morning: 30 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise at 65% of maximum heart rate attained at VO2 max prior to breakfast is highly beneficial for enhancing sleep. It can create a circadian phase shift as powerful as bright light. Leave enough glycogen in the tank for a harder workout later in the day. A 30 minute sunshine walk, a relaxing swim in cold water, or a 30 minute yoga session in a sauna.
  • Compensate for any early morning hard training: Training hard in the early morning can damage your sleep patterns. Take strategic naps during the day (20 minute post lunch siesta) and implement sleep hygiene practices at night, such as low artificial light exposure, a cool room, noise elimination, and low amounts of stress.
  • When possible, save hard workouts for the afternoon: Longer workouts (up to 2 and a half hours) between 2:00-6:00pm at 50-80% of VO2 max can drastically improve sleep. You gain the most benefit saving hard workouts for 8 hours before sleep. Try to wrap it up before 7:30pm if you plan on sleeping at 10:30pm.
  • Combat sleep deprivation with aerobic exercise: Long sessions of aerobic exercise or intense 10 minute bouts done every 2 hours during a sleep deprived day can partially alleviate sleepiness during periods of sleep restriction. Nature hikes, several short and fast sessions of kettlebell complexes or a few rounds on an Assault AirBike every two hours.
  • Calm your nervous system following exercise: Exercise increases your body temperature and SNS activity for several hours afterward. Have a warm magnesium salt bath, near infrared light panel (Joov) into the bathroom to enhance magnesium-boosting effects of the magnesium, or have a cold shower before bed.
  • Ben’s routine: 20-30 minutes of easy morning exercise in natural light in a fasted state prior to breakfast. The a hard 30-60 minute workout in the late afternoon or early evening, followed with a cold shower or a magnesium bath with the near infrared light exposure.

Sounding and Grounding

Binaural beats are two tones close in frequency that are played together in each ear. As both sounds encounter the brain, they combine for a frequency that’s the difference of the original frequencies (495Hz +505Hz = 10Hz alpha brain wave). Ben recommends the Pzizz app or SleepStream. Alternatively, you can use the AI generated ones from that confuses the brain into producing delta waves. You can also use Dr. Jeffrey Thompon’s Delta Sleep System tracks or Michael Tyrell’s 2Sleep tracks.

Earthing (grounding) is the practice of exposing your body to the natural magnetic frequencies produced by the earth. When your feet are firmly planted on the ground, you come into contact with negative ions, which are produced by turbulent, crashing water, such as waves at the beach and waterfalls, and rainforests, mountains, and other places affected by rainstorms or thunderstorms. When you are exposed to negative ions, your body releases positive ions that accumulate via cellular metabolism. Accumulated positive ions reduce the natural electrochemical gradient across your cell membranes. Excess positive ions may disrupt the gradient and disrupt cellular metabolism and increase inflammation.

  • Go barefoot, wear grounding shoes (Earth Runners), sleep with a grounding device under your mattress, or wear a grounding wristband.
  • In addition to wiggling your toes in the dirt each day, you can use a mattress or mat wired to the earth through an outlet to tap into the earth’s negative ions and natural magnetic frequency. FlexPulse and the EartPulse. You can also use the SomniResonance SR1 device, placed on your collarbone to send a delta brain wave inducing signal via the brachial plexus from your shoulder to your brain. Biomat pad produces infrared heating light. BEMER mats, BioBalance mats, and Pulse Center beds, all of which can be used for recovery, hormone production, injuries, headache elimination, and other health effects.

Sleep Or Die

How Lack of Sleep Will Kill You

One good night of sleep can improve your ability to learn motor skills by 20% and increase your ability to gain new insight into complex problems by 50%. Good quality sleep also promotes skin health and youthful appearance, controls optimal insulin secretion, and encourages healthier cell division. Eating late at night dramatically decreased rat’s sleep quality and lowered the ability to control blood sugar by 50% in one of Satchin Panda’s experiments.

At night, when melatonin is released, insulin producing cells shut down. Meaning blood sugar may spike at night, drop, then adrenaline will be released, waking you up.

Less than 6 hours of sleep leads to increased ghrelin and decreased leptin.

While asleep, the glymphatic system is draining fluids and sending clean cerebral spinal fluid to clear waste and neurotoxins. Without enough sleep, proteins such as amyloid plaques may not get removed, increasing Alzheimer’s risk. Studies in rats have shown that sleeping on one’s side improves glymphatic clearance compared to the back. Humans have lower blood pressure and heart rates when on their sides. The only detriment to lying on the side is vertical wrinkles.

Sleep apnea (increased risk when sleeping on the back) is caused by dysfunctional mitochondria too.

How Much Is Enough?

If you’re constantly stressed, inflamed, and injured you will require a lot more sleep to recover. Eating healthily and managing stress levels may result in slightly less sleep requirements (6-7 hours a night). Best to do a subjective measurement in the morning to gauge potential sickness or recovery needs. Give your body less need to sleep and when you do sleep, do it efficiently.

Sleep Basics


  • Stage 3 is when breathing heart rate drops the lowest and brain waves slow down and get wider (delta waves: 1-4Hz). Helps the brain to recover from learning. Strengthening memory and helps with consolidation, turning short-term memories into long-term. Slow-wave sleep also reduces the level of cortisol and triggers the release of prolactin and growth hormone, which support the immune system.
  • For every decade that you live past 30, subtract 12.2 minutes from your total sleep. Your REM sleep will mostly depend on your health status up until 60yo, when you start getting less, unless you do something to stop the decline.
  • Teens need 1.7-2 hours of deep sleep, 18yo+ need 1.5-1.8 hours.


  • When the SNS is activated your heart rate becomes very even no matter how fast it beats. The sign of a stressed animal. When the PNS is active, there is greater variability between heartbeats. The same number of heart beats per minute, but less rhythmic when you are relaxed. You are able to recover from stress more easily, reflected by the quick acceleration and deceleration of the heart rate. Low HRV is associated with anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease, while high HRV is linked to cardiac resilience and overall heart health.
  • Without adequate sleep, HRV is reduced from higher stress and SNS activation. Conversely, increasing HRV during the day improves sleep efficiency. Overtraining, chronic stress, obesity, inflammation, and infections all lower HRV. You can increase it by meditating, breathing exercises, a hot bath, sleeping better, eating better, eating fewer toxins, less alcohol, and the right supplements for your biology.

Sleep Better, Not More

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), triggers the release of slow waves that spread to the rest of the brain. Short auditory tones, 50ms each played at a rate that mimicked the natural changes in the brain neurons during sleep, increased slow waves by nearly 50% during non-REM sleep. Apps like Sonic Sleep Coach can help to detect breathing with your phone’s microphone, and play sounds to encourage deep sleep and REM.

Blue light stimulates intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in the retina, sending information to the SCN, inhibiting melatonin release. Mitochondria in the eyes have to produce more energy than usual to process blue light. People exposed to high levels of blue light at night have higher risk of developing breast cancer and prostate cancer, obesity, and metabolic disorders. Also, macular degeneration since it is a mitochondrial and potentially a blood coagulation disorder.

Reduce blue-light exposure by:

  • Unplugging or covering electrical devices in your bedroom
  • Blackout curtains
  • Amber or red bulbs at night
  • Toss out bright white LED and compact fluorescent lights
  • Use glasses to protect your sleep. Blueblockers at night
  • Nightshift mode on your phone and computer
  • Light filter apps like f.lux or Iris
  • Shut down all screens 2 hours before bed
  • Carotenoid supplements to protect from oxidative stress caused by blue light. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and astaxanthin
  • Increase exposure to high quality light sources before noon
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